Klaproth was the leading chemist of his time in Germany.
MARCELLIN PIERRE EUGENE BERTHELOT (1827-1907), French chemist and politician, was born at Paris on the 29th of October 1827, being the son of a doctor.
The first-mentioned chemist proposed the following formula to represent the change which takes place when sugar is fermented: - Ca-11206 = 2CO 2 2C2H60.
KARL REMIGIUS FRESENIUS (1818-1897), German chemist, was born at Frankfort-on-Main on the 28th of December 1818.
There is also a public library, with 20,000 volumes, and various scientific collections, and a public garden, with a statue of the chemist Berthollet (1748-1822), who was born not far off.
In the 19th century the word chymist became altered to chemist, although the original spelling is still continued to a small extent.
They began to make alkali by the ammonia-soda process, under licence from the Belgian chemist, Ernest Solvay, but at first the venture threatened to prove a failure.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
In his Sceptical Chemist (1662) he freely criticized the prevailing scientific views and methods, with the object of showing that true knowledge could only be gained by the logical application of the principles of experiment and deduction.
HERMANN VON FEHLING (1812-1885), German chemist, was born at Lubeck on the 9th of June 1885.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
JEREMIAS BENJAMIN RICHTER (1762-1807), German chemist, was born at Hirschberg in Silesia on the 10th of March 1762, became a mining official at Breslau in 1794, and in 1800 was appointed assessor to the department of mines and chemist to the royal porcelain factory at Berlin, where he died on the 4th of April 1807.
LOUIS NICOLAS VAUQUELIN (1763-1829), French chemist, was born at Saint-Andre-d'Hebertot in Normandy on the 16th of May 1763.
Still no explanation of this singular fact was forthcoming, and it was reserved for the young chemist from FrancheComte to solve a problem which had baffled the greatest chemists and physicists of the time.
Though an alchemist, Boyle, in his Sceptical Chemist (1661), cast doubts on the " experiments whereby vulgar Spagyrists are wont to endeavour to evince their salt, sulphur and mercury to be the true principles of things," and advanced towards the conception of chemical elements as those constituents of matter which cannot be further decomposed.
JULIUS LOTHAR MEYER (1830-1895), German chemist, was born on the 19th of August 1830, at Varel in Oldenburg.
SIR WILLIAM RAMSAY (1852-), British chemist, nephew of Sir A.
More emphatic opposition to the dualistic theory of Berzelius was hardly possible; this illustrious chemist perceived that the validity of his electrochemical theory was called in question, and therefore he waged vigorous war upon Dumas and his followers.
Ebonite takes a fine polish, and is valuable to the electrician on account of its insulating properties, and to the chemist and photographer because vessels made of it are unaffected by most chemical reagents.
SIR WILLIAM CROOKES (1832-), English chemist and physicist, was born in London on the 17th of June 1832, and studied chemistry at the Royal College of Chemistry under A.
In the same address he called attention to the conditions of the world's food supply, urging that with the low yield at present realized per acre the supply of wheat would within a comparatively short time cease to be equal to the demand caused by increasing population, and that since nitrogenous manures are essential for an increase in the yield, the hope of averting starvation, as regards those races for whom wheat is a staple food, depended on the ability of the chemist to find an artificial method for fixing the nitrogen of the air.
ETIENNE HENRI SAINTE-CLAIRE DEVILLE (1818-1881), French chemist, was born on the 11th of March 1818 in the island of St Thomas, West Indies, where his father was French consul.
WILLIAM HYDE WOLLASTON (1766-1828), English chemist and natural philosopher, was born at East Dereham, Norfolk, on the 6th of April 1766, the second of seventeen children.
Richard Chevenix (1774-1830), a chemist, having bought some of the substance, decided after experiment that it was not a simple body as claimed, but an alloy of mercury with platinum, and in 1803 presented a paper to the Royal Society setting forth this view.
Stas, the purpose of testing Prout's hypothesis, but he remained more disposed than the Belgian chemist to consider the possibility that it may have some degree of validity.
FRIEDEL, CHARLES (1832-1899), French chemist and mineralogist, was born at Strassburg on the 12th of March 1832.
And the elector Maximilian I., the obelisk erected to the 30,000 Bavarians who perished in Napoleon's expedition to Moscow, the Wittelsbach fountain (1895), the monument commemorative of the peace of 1871, and the marble statue of Justus Liebig, the chemist, set up in 1883.
Dalton, who was a mathematical physicist even more than a chemist, had given much thought to the study of gases.
The small discrepancies found are so easily accounted for by attributing them to experimental errors that, until recently, every chemist would have regarded the law as sufficiently verified.
Dr Natterer, the chemist of the " Pola " expeditions, has expressed the opinion that the poverty of the pelagic fauna is solely due to the want of circulation in the depths.