To obtain the metal chemically pure a specially prepared pure oxide or salt of zinc is distilled.
Chemically related to vanadium are the two elements tantalum and columbium or niobium.
Metals may unite chemically both with metals and with non-metals.
Jacob Joseph Winterl, in 1788, appears to have been the first to examine petroleum chemically, but the earliest systematic investigation was that carried out by Professor B.
Specimens of the best known and of many of the lesser known rubbers are included in the Colonial and Indian Collections and Sample Rooms of the Imperial Institute, and many of the authentic specimens have been chemically and technically examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of the Institute and commercially valued.
When carbon dioxide is passed into this solution the whole of the added oxide, and even part of the oxide of the normal salt, is precipitated as a basic carbonate chemically similar, but not quite equivalent as a pigment, to white lead.
It is very similar to strychnine, both chemically and physiologically.
Uranium is chemically related to chromium, molybdenum and tungsten.
Chemically; while, in most living things, mere hetero geneity is exchanged for a definite structure, whereby the body is distinguished into visibly different parts, which possess different powers or functions.
The alluvial extracted, which in the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago carries from 5 to 60 lb of tinstone (or "black tin," as it is termed by Cornish miners) to the cubic yard of gravel, is washed in various simple sluicing appliances, by which the lighter clay, sand and stones are removed and tinstone is left behind comparatively pure, containing usually 65 to 75% of metallic tin (chemically pure tinstone contains 78.7%).
This operation is no doubt intended to remove the oxygen diffused throughout the metal as oxide, part of it perhaps chemically by reduction of the oxide to metal, the rest by conveying the finely diffused oxide to the surface and causing it to unite there with the oxide scum.
Of the several commercial varieties Banka tin is the purest; it is indeed almost chemically pure.
GUNCOTTON, an explosive substance produced by the action of strong nitric acid on cellulose at the ordinary temperature; chemically it is a nitrate of cellulose, or a mixture of nitrates, according to some authorities.
Great importance was also attached to chemically prepared remedies as containing the essence or spiritual quality of the material from which they were derived.
In regard to gold this has been proved to be so; gold leaf, or thin films of gold produced chemically on glass plates, transmit light with a green colour.
On the other hand, infinitely thin films of silver which can be produced chemically on glass surfaces are absolutely opaque.
Thus, for instance, chemically pure iron in the ingot has the specific gravity 7.844; when it is rolled out into thin sheet, the value falls to 7.6; when drawn into thin wire, to 7.75.
Chemically it is one of the most interesting substances known, since it is the parent of the enormous number of compounds styled the " aromatic " or " benzenoid " compounds.
Chemically they appear to be ether anhydrides of the hexoses, the union being effected by the aldehyde or alcohol groups, and in consequence they are related to the ethers of glucose and other hexoses, i.e.
Chemically pure sodium nitrate can be obtained by repeated recrystallization of Chile saltpetre or by synthesis.
It is chemically related to cadmium and mercury, the resemblance to cadmium being especially well marked; one distinction is that zinc is less basigenic. Zinc is capable of isomorphously replacing many of the bivalent metals - magnesium, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and cadmium.
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
Many electrolytic methods have been proposed for the purification of sugar; in some of them soluble anodes are used for a few minutes in weak alkaline solutions, so that the caustic alkali from the cathode reaction may precipitate chemically the hydroxide of the anode metal dissolved in the liquid, the precipitate carrying with it mechanically some of the impurities present, and thus clarifying the solution.
We thus learn that the bronzes referred to above, although chemically uniform when solid, are not so when they begin to solidify, but that the liquid deposits crystals richer in copper than itself, and therefore that the residual liquid becomes richer in tin.
The slimes are treated chemically for the separation of the metals contained in them.
Hampe prepared chemically pure bismuth by fusing the metal with sodium carbonate and sulphur, dissolving the bismuth sulphide so formed in nitric acid, precipitating the bismuth as the basic nitrate, redissolving this salt in nitric acid, and then precipitating with ammonia.
Heavy blanks have also been reduced chemically by making them part of the anode in a cyanide bath through which a current of electricity is passed.
His analytical skill enabled him to demonstrate the inaccuracy of the researches by which Berthollet attempted to support the opposite view, and to show among other things that some of the compounds which Berthollet treated as oxides were in reality hydrates containing chemically combined water, and the upshot was that by 1808 he had fully vindicated his position.
Chemically, it is thus indentical with the cubic mineral diamond, but between the two there are very wide differences in physical characters.
Chemically pure chloride of potassium is most conveniently prepared from the pure perchlorate by heating it in a platinum basin at the lowest temperature and then fusing the residue in a wellcovered platinum crucible.
Chemically it is methyl-tetrahydro-nicotinic acid.
Chemically it is the methyl ester of arecaidine.
One remarkable discovery, however, of general interest, was the outcome of a long series of delicate weighings and minute experimental care in the determination of the relative density of nitrogen gas - undertaken in order to determine the atomic weight of nitrogen - namely, the discovery of argon, the first of a series of new substances, chemically inert, which occur, some only in excessively minute quantities, as constituents of the 1 The barony was created at George IV.'s coronation in 1821 for the wife of Joseph Holden Strutt, M.P. for Maldon (1790-1826) and Okehampton (1826-1830), who had done great service during the French War as colonel of the Essex militia.
A method of recording signals in the Morse code, formerly used to a considerable extent, was to use a chemically prepared ribbon of paper.
The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls.
The chloro-bromide and bromide of silver were also included under this term until they were distinguished chemically in 1841 and 1842, and described under the names embolite and bromargyrite (or bromyrite) respectively; the chloride then came to be distinguished as chlorargyrite, though the name cerargyrite is often now applied to this alone.
The force which holds chemically dissimilar substances together (and also similar substances as is seen in di-, tri-, and poly-atomic molecules), was introduced by Hermann Boerhaave, and made more precise by Sir Isaac Newton.
Isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of time.
Isomorphism may be defined as the existence of two or more different substances in the same crystal form and structure, polymorphism as the existence of the same substance in two or more crystal modifications, and morphotropy (after P. von Groth) as the change in crystal form due to alterations in the molecule of closely (chemically) related substances.
It is not at all certain that the masses on which coral reefs are built consist entirely of the remains of the skeletons of reef-forming organisms and it is probable that chemically precipitated carbonate of lime predominates.
Chemically they resemble the albumins, being split up by acids or ferments into albumoses, peptones and amino-acids, forming salts, and giving N =C6 1 The pyrimidin ring is numbered 2C "C5.
Now this ratio is the same as that which gives the relative chemical equivalents of hydrogen and copper, for r gramme of hydrogen and 31.8 grammes of copper unite chemically with the same weight of any acid radicle such as chlorine or the sulphuric group, SO 4.
Kohlrausch has prepared water of which the conductivity compared with that of mercury was only o 4 oX 11 at 18° C. Even here some little impurity was present, and the conductivity of chemically pure water was estimated by thermodynamic reasoning as o 36X1011 at 18° C. As we shall see later, the conductivity of very dilute salt solutions is proportional to the concentration, so that it is probable that, in most cases, practically all the current is carried by the salt.
If some of the anions, instead of being simple iodine ions represented chemically by the symbol I, are complex structures formed by the union of iodine with unaltered cadmium iodide - structures represented by some such chemical formula as I(CdI 2), the concentration of the solution round the anode would be increased by the passage of an electric current, and the phenomena observed would be explained.
We may take it, then, that only that portion of these bodies is chemically active which is electrolytically active - that ionization is necessary for such chemical activity as we are dealing with here, just as it is necessary for electrolytic conductivity.
By determining the rotation of the plane of polarization of a solution, or, chemically, by taking advantage of its property of reducing alkaline copper solutions.
This can only be effected if the surface of the metal on which the deposit is to be made is chemically clean.
For the preparation of chemically pure tin two methods are employed.
Chemically pure sand is silicon dioxide (SiO 2) or quartz, a clear transparent glass-like mineral, but as ordinarily met with, it is more or less impure and generally coloured reddish or yellowish by oxide of iron.
A redistilled zinc, from an ordinarily pure commercial zinc, is often called chemically pure, but redistillation is seldom practised except for the recovery of zinc from galvanizer's dross and from the skimmings and bottoms of the melting furnaces of zinc rolling mills.
In 1902, in an "attempt at a chemical conception of the ether," he put forward the hypothesis that there are in existence two elements of smaller atomic weight than hydrogen, and that the lighter of these is a chemically inert, exceedingly mobile, all-penetrating and all-pervading gas, which constitutes the aether.
The oil has been chemically analysed and found to be a fish-oil, and to possess nearly all the qualities of that obtained from the liver of the cod, with a lighter specific gravity.
The temperature is uniformly 54° Fahr., and the atmosphere is optically and chemically pure.
Storage for eight months did not disturb the density of the chemically extracted gas, nor had the silent electric discharge any influence upon either quality.
To these is added water, which combining chemically with the cement conglomerates the whole mixture into a solid mass, and forms a rough but strong artificial stone.
It should be free from dirt - that is to say, free from clay or soft mud, for instance, which prevents the cement adhering to its particles, or again from sewage matter or any substance which will chemically destroy the matrix.
The amount required to combine chemically with the cement is about 16% by weight, but in practice much more than this is used, because of loss by evaporation, and the difficulty of ensuring that the water shall be uniformly distributed.
Its electrical conductivity, determined on 99.6% metal, is 60.5% that of copper for equal volumes, or double that of copper for equal weights, and when chemically pure it exhibits a somewhat higher relative efficiency.
The individual and collective influence of the several impurities which occur in the product of the Heroult cell is still to seek, and the importance of this inquiry will be seen when we consider that if cast iron, wrought iron and steel, the three totally distinct metals included in the generic name of "iron" - which are only distinguished one from another chemically by minute differences in the proportion of certain non-metallic ingredients - had only been in use for a comparatively few years, attempts might occasionally be made to forge cast iron, or to employ wrought iron in the manufacture of edge-tools.
The Ores actually Impure.-As these five minerals actually exist in the earth's crust they are usually more or less impure chemically, and they are almost always mechanically mixed with xlv.
Its physical and chemical properties have been the subject of much study, and have a special interest in view of the extraordinary difference between the physical characters of the diamond and those of graphite (blacklead) or charcoal, with which it is chemically identical, and into which it can be converted by the action of heat or electricity.
When chemically pure, which is rarely the case, blende is colourless and transparent; usually, however, the mineral is yellow, brown or black, and often opaque, the depth of colour and degree of transparency depending on the amount of iron present.
Lord Rayleigh in 1894 found that the density of atmospheric nitrogen was about 2% higher than that of chemically prepared nitrogen, a discovery which led to the isolation of the rare gases of the atmosphere.