Economy in capital outlay and cheapness in construction is indeed the characteristic generally associated with light railways by the public, and implicitly attached to them by parliament in the act of 1896, and any simplifications of the engineering or mechanical features they may exhibit compared with the standard railways of the country are mainly, if not entirely, due to the desire to keep down their expenses.
Thus the gauge may be narrow, the line single, the rails lighter than those used in standard practice, while deep cuttings and high embankments may be avoided by permitting the curves to be sharper and the gradients steeper: such points conduce to cheapness of construction.
Again, low speeds, light stock, less stringent requirements as to continuous brakes, signals, block-working and interlocking, road-crossings, stations, &c., tend to cheapness in working.
To buy in the cheapest market and sell in the dearest; to secure cheapness by lowering the expenses of production; to adopt the less expensive rather than the more expensive method of obtaining a given result - these and other maxims are as old as human society.
Standing in the centre of a great coal-bearing basin, Sydney is naturally the seat of numerous manufactures, to the prosperity of which the abundance and cheapness of coal has been highly conducive.
- The cultivation of sugar was first introduced in the middle of the 17th century, and owing to the cheapness of labour, the extreme fertility of the soil and the care bestowed on its cultivation, became the staple product of the island.
It has recently become the seat of a considerable manufacture of carpets, owing to the cheapness of labour.
The advantages claimed for it were its cheapness, smallness and portability; that there was no appreciable distortion, and that its field was much larger than that of the camera obscura.
The merit of the simple suspension bridge is its cheapness, and its defect is its flexibility: This last becomes less serious as the dead weight of the structure becomes large in proportion to the live or temporary load.
The cheapness of labour attracted capitalists, who started extensive factories in that quarter of the town known even now as the Liberties.
This growth in cotton manufactures is due to various causes, among them being_ the proximity of raw material, convenient water-power, municipal exemption from taxation and the cheapness of labour.
These are only a few of the moths from which silks of various usefulness can be produced; but none of these presents qualities, saving perhaps cheapness alone, which can put them in competition with common silk.
The oil is obtained from the seeds by two principal methods - expression and decoction - the latter process being largely used in India, where the oil, on account of its cheapness and abundance is extensively employed for illuminating as well as for other domestic and medicinal purposes.
At the present day they vie with precious gems and gold as ornaments and garniture for wealth and fashion; but by their abundance, and the cheapness of some varieties, they have recently come within the reach of men of moderate incomes.
In modern times brass has been much used, chiefly for the sake of its cheapness as compared with bronze.
But they require an extravagant supply of charcoal; and even with the cheapness of native labour the product cannot compete in price with imported iron from England.
Before the earthquake wood had been employed to a large extent, partly because of the accessibility, cheapness and general excellence of redwood, but also because of the belief that it was better suited to withstand earthquake shocks.
Its comparative cheapness, one dollar's worth being equal to three dollars' worth of opium in the effect produced, its portability and the facilities offered in obtaining it, are all in its favour.
Large tanneries were attracted to the state, soon after the Civil War, by the abundance of tan bark in the forests, and the cheapness of labour.
At first foreigners were attracted by the cheapness and good air of the region, added to the grape cure.
He painted in lurid colours the terrors of purgatory, while he dwelt on the cheapness of the indulgence which would purchase remission and his prices were lowered as each sale approached its end.
This property is usually obtained by mixing soft and hard soaps, or, more rarely, by adding gum tragacanth to a hard soap. In the textile trades the wool scourer employs a neutral olive-oil soap, or, on account of its cheapness, a neutral curd or curd mottled brand; the cotton cleanser, on the other hand, uses an alkaline soap, but for cleaning printed cottons a neutral olive-oil curd soap is used, for, in this case, free alkali and resin are objectionable; olive-oil soap, free from caustic alkali, but often with sodium carbonate, is also used in cleansing silk fibres, although hard soaps free from resin are frequently employed for their cheapness.
In the production of aniline from nitrobenzene, but the use of iron is generally preferable in view of the cheapness of this metal.
Generally speaking, they are only of local importance, their cheapness depending largely on the nearness and abundance of some suitable volcanic deposit of the trass or tufa class.
Some years ago it was discovered that a bark imported from Colombia under the name of cuprea bark, or "hard" bark, and derived from Remijia pedunculata, Triana, and other species, contained quinine to the extent of 4 to 22%, and in 1881 this bark was exported in enormous quantities from Santander, exceeding in amount the united importations of all the other cinchona barks;: and by reason of its cheapness this has since that date been largely used for the manufacture of quinine.