The houses are for the most part low and cheaply built, and the streets are narrow, badly paved, irregular and dirty.
Pig iron is manufactured cheaply because of the low price of fuel; in 1907 the value of pig iron manufactured in the state was $6,454,000.
Their primary object being the development and peopling of the land, they have naturally been made as cheaply as possible; and as in such cases the cost of the land is inconsiderable, economy has been sought by the use of lighter and rougher permanent way, plant, rolling stock, &c. Such railways are not " light " in the technical sense of having been made under enactments intended to secure permanent lowness of cost as compared with standard lines.
For so long as the great bulk of oils is so cheaply produced in nature's laboratory, the natural products will hold their field for a long time to come.
It built ships as cheaply as any place in the world, it carried goods for other colonies, it traded-often evading British laws-with Europe, Guinea, Madagascar and above all with the West Indies.
The question as to whether synthetic rubber will ever be produced cheaply on a commerical scale is therefore the important one for those who are largely interested in the rubber-planting industry.
The great majority of the people are unused to wheaten bread, using the coarse flour of the mandioca root instead, consequently the demand for wheat and flour is confined to the large cities, which can obtain them from Argentina more cheaply than they can be produced in the country.
In 1898 also the municipal franchise, hitherto confined to ratepayers, was greatly widened; in 1900 the English system of compensation to workmen for accidents suffered in their trade was adopted with some changes, one of the chief being that contested claims are adjudicated upon cheaply and expeditiously by the same arbitration court that decides industrial disputes.
The great mass of manufactured commodities were produced in the United Kingdom more cheaply than in foreign countries, and would not have been imported, with duty or without, except in sporadic amounts for some special qualities.
One of the principal mining districts is Kai Chow, in the prefecture of Kwei-yang Fu, and this district has the advantage of being situated near Hwang-p`ing Chow, from which place the products can be conveniently and cheaply shipped to Hankow.
And the reader is frequently reminded of Thomas Fuller by such passages as this: "A university dunner is a gentlemen follower cheaply purchased, for his own money has hyr'd him."
It was obtained as a by-product in many chemical reactions, and subsequently used to be extracted from kainite, one of the Stassfurt minerals, but the process is now given up because the salt can be produced cheaply enough from the chloride by decomposing it with sulphuric acid and calcining the residue.
Customs duties have been found to be in general the most cheaply collected, the least conspicuous, and least annoying of all taxes.
Another route worked more cheaply than formerly is that by river, from the centre of the winter wheat belt, say at St Louis, to New Orleans, and thence by steamer to Liverpool.
This type of house, cheaply constructed, is in general use for raising grapes for market.
The middle states, New York, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, are known to have many great deposits of rich magnetite, which supplied a very large proportion of the American ores till the discovery of the very cheaply mined ores of Lake Superior.
Thick, there are cheaply mined but poor and impure ores near Prague, and important ore beds in both northern and southern Hungary.
Action incidental to this carburizing removes the sulphur easily and cheaply, a thing hardly to be expected of any direct process so far as we can see.
The melting can be done much more cheaply in a cupola or open-hearth furnace, and the first part of the purification much more cheaply in a Bessemer converter or open-hearth furnace.
In short electric furnaces replace the old crucible furnace primarily because they work more cheaply, though in addition they may be made to yield a better steel than it can.
The electric furnaces are likely to displace the crucible furnaces completely, because they work both more cheaply and better.
They serve a given purpose more cheaply, in the long run, than either rolled or cast steel, in spite of their need of being so massive that the brittleness of the material itself shall be endurable.
The summer is propagated by the mosquito (Anopheles claviger) marks a new epoch; the most diverse theories as to its origin had hitherto been propounded, but it is now possible to combat it on a definite plan, by draining the marshes, protecting the houses by fine mosquito-proof wire netting (for Anopheles is not active by day), improving the water supply, &c., while for those who have fever, quinine (now sold cheaply by the state) is a great specific. A great improvement is already apparent; and a law carried in 1903 for the Bonifica dell' Agro Romano compels the proprietors within a radius of some 6 m.
On the steep sides of valleys the plan is easily and cheaply carried out, and where the whole course of the - water is not long the peculiar properties which give it value, though lessened, are not exhausted when it reaches that part of the meadow which it irrigates last.
- Most of the Leblanc liquor is nowadays converted into caustic soda, as white soda-ash is more easily and cheaply made by the ammonia-soda process.
In 1891 another Belgian company, Socit anonyme des verreries nationales de Perse, opened a glass factory in Teherr~, but the difficulty of obtaining the raw material cheaply and in large quantities was too ereat to make it a paving concern~ and the factory had to be closed.
But the truth is that almost all furniture back in the day was cheaply made junk and only a very few high-quality pieces survived.
The nobility attempted to escape taxation as cheaply as possible by stipulating that the 6th of November 1632, the day of Gustavus Adolphus's death, should be the extreme limit of any restrospective action on the part of the crown in regard to alienated crown property, and that the present subsidy should be regarded as " a perpetual ordinance " unalterably to be observed by all future sovereigns - in other words, that there should be no further restitution of alienated crown property.
In 445 Bleda died, and two years afterwards Attila, now sole ruler, undertook one of his most important expeditions against the Eastern empire; on this occasion he pushed southwards as far as Thermopylae, Gallipoli and the walls of Constantinople; peace was cheaply purchased by tripling the yearly tribute (which accordingly now stood at 2 100 pounds of gold, or £84,000 sterling) and by the payment of a heavy indemnity.
It may be said that, up to the year 1900, irrigation progressed to such an extent that there remained few ordinary localities where water could not be easily or cheaply diverted from creeks and rivers for the cultivation of farms. The claims for the available supply from small streams, however, exceeded the water to be had in the latter part of the irrigating season..
It may therefore be said that caoutchouc has been already artificially or synthetically prepared, and the possibility of producing synthetic rubber cheaply on a commercial scale remains the only problem.
The mole-hills and serrated ridges of medieval maps were still in almost general use at the close of the 18th century, and are occasionally met with at the present day, being cheaply produced, readily understood by the unlearned, and in reality preferable to the uncouth and misleading hatchings still to be seen on many maps.