The railway from Chattanooga to Atlanta, destroyed by Johnston as he fell back in May and June, was now repaired and working up to Thomas's camps.
In 1870 the site was a cotton field, where two railways, the South & North, and the Alabama & Chattanooga, now part respectively of the Louisville & Nashville and the Southern System, met.
It is served by the Southern, the Central of Georgia, the Georgia, the Seaboard Air Line, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis (which enters the city over the Western & Atlantic, one of its leased lines), the Louisville & Nashville, the Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic, and the Atlanta & West Point railways.
Only a small force was left to guard the Chattanooga railway, and the Union forces, Howard on the right, Thomas in the centre, and Schofield on the left, reached the railway after some sharp fighting (action of Jonesboro', September 1).
The city is served by the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis, and the Western & Atlantic railways, and is connected with Atlanta by an electric line.
A few months later the great reverse of Chickamauga created an alarm in the North commensurate with the elation that had been felt at the double victory of Vicksburg and Gettysburg, and Grant was at once ordered to Chattanooga, to decide the fate of the Army of the Cumberland in a second battle.
Later in 1863, when the battle of Chattanooga brought the Federals to the borders of Georgia, Johnston was assigned to command the Army of Tennessee at Dalton, and in the early days of May 1864 the combined armies of the North under Sherman advanced against his lines.
Wide, he assembled, near Chattanooga, his three armies, aggregating roo,000 men, and began (May 1864) the invasion of Georgia.
He commanded a division in the Vicksburg campaign and in the fighting about Chattanooga, and was one of Sherman's corps commanders in the final campaigns in Georgia and the Carolinas.
Columbia is served by the Louisville & Nashville, and the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railways.
Corps (later combined as the XX.) to Tennessee, and took part in the battle of Chattanooga (1863), and the Atlanta campaign of the following year, when he commanded a division of the XX.
It is served by the following railways: the Pittsburg, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (Pennsylvania system), the Cleveland, Cincinnati, Chicago & St Louis (New York Central system), the Chicago, Cincinnati & Louisville, the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific (the lessee of the Cincinnati Southern railway,' connecting Cincinnati and Chattanooga, Tenn., its line ' The Cincinnati Southern railway is of especial interest in that it was built by the city of Cincinnati in its corporate capacity.
The work was carried on under the direction of a board of five trustees appointed by the superior court of Cincinnati in accordance with the so-called Ferguson Act passed by the Ohio legislature in 1869, and the railway was completed to Chattanooga in February 1880 forming part of the so-called Queen & Crescent Route to New Orleans).
Throughout the critical period of the war, that is, from the beginning of 1862 up to the day of Chattanooga, three distinct campaigns were always in progress.
This year saw the greatest successes and the heaviest reverses of the Union army, Gettysburg and Vicksburg and Chattanooga against Chancellorsville and Chickamauga.
Thomas's defence won him the popular title of the "Rock of Chickamauga" and enabled Rosecrans to draw off his men, but the critical position of the Army of the Cumberland in Chattanooga aroused great alarm.
Hooker defeated Longstreet at Wauhatchie and revictualled Chattanooga (q.v.), and on the 23rd, 24th and 25th of November the three armies attacked Bragg's position.
Vicksburg, Gettysburg and Chattanooga ended the crisis of the war, which had been at its worst for the Union in this year.
Meade was to "hammer" Lee, and Sherman, at the head of the armies which had been engaged at Chattanooga and Knoxville, was to deal with the other great field army of Confederates under Johnston, and as far as possible gain ground for the Union in the south-east.
An attack on the Army of the Ohio near Jonesboro concluded the Atlanta campaign, which left Sherman in control of Atlanta, but hampered by the necessity of preserving his communications with Chattanooga and weakened by a total loss of 30,000 men.
General Slocum with Hooker's old Potomac troops garrisoned Atlanta, and every important post along the railway to Chattanooga was held in force.
But the "bummers" were no mere marauders, but picked men from the armies that had won Vicksburg and Chattanooga, and, though surrounded, held their ground stoutly and successfully.
Long) from Chattanooga, Tennessee, to Atlanta, which has valuable terminal facilities in both cities, and which in 1910 was estimated to be worth $8,400,240 (more than the amount of the bonded debt); this railway the state built in 1841-1850, and in 1890 leased for 29 years, at an annual rental of $420,012, to the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railway.
In 1863 north-west Georgia was involved in the Chattanooga campaign.
In 1882 he became a clerk in the U.S. Circuit Court of Chattanooga, read law, and three years later was admitted to the bar.
He at once began practice in Chattanooga but in 1892 removed to New York City.
In 1885 he was married to Miss Sarah Fleming of Chattanooga, who died in 1912.
It is served by the Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific, the St Louis & San Francisco, the Illinois Central, the Southern, the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis, the St Louis South-Western, the St Louis, Iron Mountain & Southern and the Yazoo & Mississippi Valley railways, and by steamboats on the Mississippi.
Rosecrans with Chattanooga as his objective moved from Nashville upon General Braxton Bragg, who left the winter quarters he had established at Murfreesboro and met the Union army on Stone river immediately north of Murfreesboro, on the last day of December.
It is served by the Central of Georgia, the Western & Atlantic (leased by the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis), the Southern and the Rome & Northern railways, and the Coosa river is navigable from this point to the falls of the river in Alabama.
CHATTANOOGA, a city and the county-seat of Hamilton county, Tennessee, U.S.A., in the S.E.
The city is served by the Alabama Great Southern (Queen and Crescent), the Cincinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific (partly controlled by the Southern), the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis (controlled by the Louisville & Nashville), and its leased line, the Western & Atlantic (connecting with Atlanta, Ga.), the Central of Georgia, and the Chattanooga Southern railways, and by freight and passenger steamboat lines on the Tennessee river, which is navigable to and beyond this point during eight months of the year.
That branch of the Southern railway extending from Chattanooga to Memphis was formerly the Memphis & Charleston, under which name it became famous in the American Civil War.
Chattanooga occupies a picturesque site at a sharp bend of the river.
Among Chattanooga's educational institutions are two commercial colleges, the Chattanooga College for Young Ladies (nonsectarian), the Chattanooga Normal University, and the University of Chattanooga, until June 1907, United States Grant University (whose preparatory department, "The Athens School," is at Athens, Tenn.), a co-educational institution under Methodist Episcopal control, established in 1867; it has a school of law (1899), a medical school (1889), and a school of theology (1888).
Chattanooga is an important produce, lumber, coal and iron market, and is the principal trade and jobbing centre for a large district in Eastern Tennessee and Northern Georgia and Alabama.
The value of the city's factory products increased from $10,517,886 in 1900 to $15,193,909 in 1905 or 44'5% Chattanooga was first settled about 1835, and was long known as Ross's Landing.
It was incorporated in 1851 as Chattanooga, and received a city charter in 1866.
From the end of September to the 24th of November the Army of the Cumberland was then invested in Chattanooga by the Confederates, whose position lay along Missionary Ridge from its north end near the river towards Rossville, whence their entrenchments extended westwards to Lookout Mountain, which dominates the whole ground, the Tennessee running directly beneath it.
Thus Rosecrans was confined to a semicircle of low ground around Chattanooga itself, and his supplies had to make a long and difficult detour from Bridgeport, the main road being under fire from the Confederate position on Lookout and in the Wauhatchie valley adjacent.
Hooker's troops had already arrived when Grant reached Chattanooga on the 23rd of October.
The first action was fought at Brown's Ferry in the Wauhatchie valley, where Hooker executed with complete precision a plan for the revictualling of Chattanooga, established himself near Wauhatchie on the 28th, and repulsed a determined attack on the same night.
His plan was that Thomas in the Chattanooga lines should contain the Confederate centre on Missionary Ridge, while Hooker on the right at Wauhatchie was to attack Lookout Mountain, and Sherman farther up the river was to carry out the decisive attack against Bragg's extreme right wing at the end of Missionary Ridge.
But Grant would not move forward without Sherman, and the battle of Chattanooga was fought more than two months after Chickamauga.
It is served by the Mobile & Ohio, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis and the Illinois Central railways.
Nashville is served by the Tennessee Central, the Louisville & Nashville, and the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis railways, and by several steamboat lines.
Afterwards he was in charge of the construction of the Muscle Shoals Canal on the Tennessee river and of another canal near Chattanooga, Tenn.
After the close of the Civil War (1865) the iron resources of the state attracted renewed attention, particularly the brown and red hematites, and large and modern furnaces were erected in the Chattanooga district to reduce these ores.
The principal railways operating in the state in 1910 were the Louisville & Nashville, the Nashville, Chattanooga & St Louis, the Cincinnati Southern and the Southern.
Chattanooga, Knoxville, Memphis and Nashville are ports of entry.
The principal cities of the state, with population for 1910, are Memphis, 131,105; Nashville, 110,364; Chattanooga, 44,604 and Knoxville, 36,346.
Other institutions of higher learning, not under the control of the state, are: the University of Nashville (non-sect., 1785); Washington and Tusculum College (non-sect., 1794), at Greenville; Maryville College (Presbyterian, 1819), at Maryville; Cumberland University (Presbyterian, 1842), at Lebanon; Burritt College (non-sect., 1848), at Spencer; Hiwassee College (non-sect., 1849), at Sweetwater; Bethel College (Presbyterian 1850), at McKenzie; Carson and Newman College (Baptist, 1851), at Jefferson City; Walden University (Methodist, 1866), at Nashville; Fisk University (Congregational, 1866), at Nashville; University of Chattanooga (Methodist, 1867), at Chattanooga; University of the South (Protestant Episcopal, 1868), at Sewanee; King College (Presbyterian, 1869), at Bristol; Christian Brothers College (Roman Catholic, 1871), at Memphis; Knoxville College (United Presbyterian, 1875), at Knoxville; Milligan College (Christian, 1882), at Milligan; South-western Presbyterian College (1885), at Clarkville; and Lincoln Memorial University (non-sect., 1895), at Cumberland Gap.
General Grant now assumed command, and on the 24th and 25th of November defeated Bragg at Chattanooga, thus opening the way into East Tennessee.