Nautical charts are dealt with in A.
The statistical work includes compiling abstracts, memoranda, tables and charts relating to the trade and industrial conditions of the United Kingdom, the colonies and foreign countries, the supervision of the trade accounts, the preparation of monthly and annual accounts of shipping and navigation, statistics as to labour, cotton, emigration and foreign and colonial customs, tariffs and regulations.
We moved to Howie's office where she spread out the charts and papers.
She stared at the charts again.
Far superior are those scenographic representations which enable a person consulting the map to identify prominent landmarks, such as the Pic du Midi, which rises like a pillar to the south of Pau, but is not readily discovered upon an ordinary map. This advantage is still fully recognized, for such views of distant hills are still commonly given on the margin of marine charts for the assistance of navigators; military surveyors are encouraged to introduce sketehes of prominent landmarks upon their reconnaissance plans, and the general public is enabled to consult " Picturesque Relief Maps " - such as F.
Vallard, all of Argues, near Dieppe, whose charts were compiled between 1541 and 1554.
By 1665 the Dutch possessed rough charts of almost the whole of the western littoral, while to the mainland itself they had given the name of New Holland.
The vessels then proceeded northward without finding any traces of the object of their search, but, at the same time, making fairly accurate charts of the coast-line.
In Italian, Spanish and Portuguese the word mappa has retained its place, by the side of carta, for marine charts, but in other languages both kinds of maps 1 are generally known by a word derived from the Latin charta, as carte in French, Karte in German, Kaart in Dutch.
The charts in use of the medieval navigators of the Indian Ocean - Arabs, Persians or Dravidas - were equal in value if not superior to the charts of the Mediterranean.
Marco Polo mentions such charts; Vasco da Gama (1498) found them in the hands of his Indian pilot, and their nature is fully explained in the Mohit or encyclopaedia of the sea compiled from ancient sources by the Turkish admiral Sidi Ali Ben Hosein in 1554.1 These charts are covered with a close network of lines intersecting each other at right angles.
These charts are based upon estimated bearings and distances between the principal ports or capes, the intervening coast-line being filled in from more detailed surveys.
Dependent upon the seaman's observation of the heavens, for these charts were in use long before the compass had been introduced on board ship (as early as 1205, according to Guiot de Provins) although it became fully serviceable only after the needle had been attached to the compass card, an improvement probably introduced by Flavio Gioja of Amalfi in the beginning of A.
Charts of this description are first mentioned in connexion with the Crusade of Louis XI.
The compass may of course have been used for improving these charts, but they originated without its aid, and it is therefore misleading to describe them as Compass or Loxodromic charts, and they are now known as Portolano charts.
None of these charts is graduated, and the horizontal and vertical lines which cross many of them represent neither parallels nor meridians.
On these old charts the Mediterranean is delineated with surprising fidelity.
Wagner, to the inexperience of the cartographers who first combined the charts of the separate basins of the Mediterranean so as to produce a chart of the whole.
The production of these charts employed numerous licensed draughtsmen in the principal seaports of Italy and Catalonia, and among seamen these MS. charts remained popular long after the productions of the printing-press had become available.
The oldest of these maps which have been preserved, the socalled " Pisan chart," which belongs probably to the middle of the 13th century, and a set of eight charts, known by the name of its former owner, the Cavaliere Tamar Luxoro, of somewhat later date, are both the work of Genoese artists.
Associated with Ancona are Grazioso Benincasa and his son Andreas, whose numerous charts were produced between 1461 and 1508, and Count Ortomano Freducci (1497-1538).
The maritime discoveries and surveys of that age of great discoveries were laid down upon so-called " plane-charts," that is, charts having merely equidistant parallels indicated upon them, together with the equator, the tropics and polar FIG.
Other cosmographers of distinction were Pedro Reinel (1504-1542), Nuno Garcia de Toreno (1520), to whom we are indebted for 21 charts, illustrating Magellan's voyage, Diogo Ribero (maps of the world 1527, 1529), 2 Alonzo de Santa Cruz, of Seville, whose Isolario general includes charts of all parts of the world (1541), John Rotz or Rut (1542), Sebastian Cabot (1544), as also Nicolas Desliens, Pierre Desceliers, G.
Gastaldo (1548) presents us with a map of Italy, which, except as to nomenclature, differs but little from that of Ptolemy, although on the Portolano charts the peninsula had long since assumed its correct shape.
Willem Janszon, the father of Hondius's partner, published a collection of charts (1608), to which he gave the title of Het Licht der Zeevaart (the seaman's light).
Delisle in 19 sheets (1739-1745); charts illustrating the variation of the compass and of magnetic " dip " by E.
In 1830 he was placed in charge of the division of instruments and charts, and in 1838 was appointed to command an exploring and surveying expedition in the Southern Seas, authorized by Congress in 1836.
Bearing this caution in mind the existing bathymetrical charts, amongst which that of the prince of Monaco stands first, give a very fair idea of the great features of the bed of the oceans.
In particular Sir John Murray considers that only deeps exceeding 3000 fathoms in depth should be named, and in his charts he has named these deeps after persons whether the individuals thus honoured had themselves discovered or explored the deeps in question or not.
Important current and temperature charts of the ocean and occasional memoirs are published for the Admiralty by the Meteorological Office in London, by the U.S. Hydrographic Office in Washington, the Deutsche Seewarte in Hamburg, and also at intervals by the French, Russian, Dutch and Scandinavian admiralties.
Pilot Charts of the North Atlantic and North Pacific are issued monthly by the U.S. Hydrographic Office, and of the North Atlantic and of the Indian Ocean and Red Sea by the British Meteorological Office, giving a conspectus of the normal conditions of weather and sea.
Klinkerfuss published in 1881 photo-lithographic reproductions of Mayer's local charts and general map of the moon; and his star-catalogue was re-edited by F.
Malocello's name and nationality are certainly preserved by those early Portolani or scientific charts (such as the "Dulcert" of 1339 and the "Laurentian Portolano" of 1351), in which the African islands appear, for the first time in history, in clear and recognizable form.
What Howie has is off the 'ucking charts and I'm now part of it!
She swallowed hard and gazed at the charts on the wall.
Like "Brazil," it dates from a period anterior to the discovery of the New World, "Antilia," as stated above, being one of those mysterious lands, which figured on the medieval charts sometimes as an archipelago, sometimes as continuous land of greater or lesser extent, constantly fluctuating in mid-ocean between the Canaries and East India.
Somewhat similar legends are those of the island of Brazil, of Lyonnesse, the sunken land off the Cornish coast, of the lost Breton city of Is, and of Mayda or Asmaide - the French Isle Verte and Portuguese Ilha Verde or "Green Island" - which appears in many folk-tales from Gibraltar to the Hebrides, and until 1853 was marked on English charts as a rock in 44° 48' N.
Following the first chart of lines of equal variation compiled by Edmund Halley in 1700, charts of similar type have been published from time to time embodying recent observations and corrected for the secular change, thus providing seamen with values of the variation accurate to about 30' of arc. Possessing these data, it is easy to ascertain by observation the effects of the iron in a ship in disturbing the compass, and it will be found for the most part in every vessel that the needle is deflected from the magnetic meridian by a horizontal angle called the deviation of the compass; in some directions of the ship's head adding to the known variation of the place, in other directions subtracting from it.
These instruments they have from us, and made by our artists, and they do not in the least vary from ours, except that the characters are Arabic. The Arabs are the most skilful navigators of all the Asiatics or Africans; but neither they nor the Indians make use of charts, and they do not much want them; some they have, but they are copied from ours, for they are altogether ignorant of perspective."
That the Arabs must have been acquainted with the compass, and with the construction and use of charts, at a period nearly two centuries previous to Chardin's first voyage to the East, may be gathered from the description given by Barros of a map of all the coast of India, shown to Vasco da Gama by a Moor of Guzerat (about the 15th of July 1498), in which the bearings were laid down "after the manner of the Moors," or "with meridians and parallels very small (or close together), without other bearings of the compass; because, as the squares of these meridians and parallels were very small, the coast was laid down by these two bearings of N.
Windroses with these characteristics are found in Venetian and Genoese charts of early 14th century, and are depicted similarly by the Spanish navigators.
He tells how, when he had slowly taken in the doctrine of logical figures and moods, he put it aside and would prove things only in his own way; how he then heard about bodies as consisting of matter and form, as throwing off species of themselves for perception, and as moved by sympathies and antipathies, with much else of a like sort, all beyond his comprehension; and how he therefore turned to his old books again, fed his mind on maps and charts of earth and sky, traced the sun in his path, followed Drake and Cavendish girdling the main, and gazed with delight upon pictured haunts of men and wonders of unknown lands.
In 1917 a detailed survey was made of the coast of Ellesmere Land from Cape Sabine to Clarence Head, which considerably altered the charts based on the rough surveys of Inglefield, Kane and Hayes.
The large number of English names on this coast is due to the fact that the earliest detailed survey of this region was made by English naval officers; the charts prepared from their surveys are still in use and form the basis of all subsequent maps.
Although it is certain that the four great geographical landmarks which to-day serve to keep Hudson's memory alive, namely the Hudson Bay, Strait, Territory and River, had repeatedly been visited and even drawn on maps and charts before he set out on his voyages, yet he deserves to take a very high rank among northern navigators for the mere extent of his discoveries and the success with which he pushed them beyond the limits of his predecessors.
They are expert navigators, and construct curious charts of thin strips of wood tied together with fibres, some giving the position of the islands and some the direction of the prevailing winds.
Captain James Cook in 1778 made surveys from which the first approximately accurate chart of the coast was published; but it was reserved for Vancouver in 1793-1794 to make the first charts in the modern sense of the intricate south-eastern coast, which only in recent years have been superseded by new surveys.
Baker, " List of Charts, Maps, and Publications relating to Alaska," in United States Pacific Coast Pilot, 1879; Monthly Catalogue United States Public Documents, No.
The greater part of the main island of Tierra del Fuego is formed by the continuation of the Tertiary beds of the Patagonian tableland cut by the transversal depression of Magellan Strait and by the low land extending from Useless Bay on the west to San Sebastian Bay on the east, of so recent origin that there exist still some salt lakes, this depression being represented in the old charts as an inter-oceanic passage for small boats.
The Seychelles are marked on Portuguese charts dated 1502.
We hear also of one Master Peter, who inscribed and illuminated maps for the infante; the mathematician Pedro Nunes declares that the prince's mariners were well taught and provided with instruments and rules of astronomy and geometry "which all map-makers should know"; Cadamosto tells us that the Portuguese caravels in his day were the best sailing ships afloat; while, from several matters recorded by Henry's biographers, it is clear that he devoted great attention to the study of earlier charts and of any available information he could gain upon the trade-routes of north-west Africa.
That day being the feast of St Lawrence, Madagascar was named the " Isle of St Lawrence," and retained that name on all maps and charts for a hundred years.
The same year, however, he began to write a series of articles on naval reform and other subjects, under the title of Scraps from the Lucky-Bag, which attracted much attention; and in 1841 he was placed in charge of the Depot of Charts and Instruments, out of which grew the United States Naval Observatory and the Hydrographic Office.
The coasts of Celebes are often fertile and well populated; but, as shown by the marine charts, many sand, mud and stone banks lie near the shore, and con sequently there are few accessible or natural ports or good roadsteads.
These Dutch maps and charts are generally accompanied by descriptive notes or sailing directions printed on the back of them.