LOUIS PHILIPPE ORLEANS, DUKE OF (1725-1785), son of Louis, duke of Orleans, was born at Versailles on the 12th of May 1725, and was known as the duke of Chartres until his father's death in 1752.
Having borne the title of duke of Montpensier until his grandfather's death in 1752, he became duke of Chartres, and in 1769 married Louise Marie Adelaide de Bourbon-Penthievre, daughter and heiress of the duke of Penthievre, grand admiral of France, and the richest heiress of the time.
As duke of Chartres he opposed the plans of Maupeou in 1771, and was promptly exiled to his country estate of Villers-Cotterets (Aisne).
Came to the throne in 1774 Chartres still found himself looked on coldly at court; Marie Antoinette hated him, and envied him for his wealth, wit and freedom from etiquette, and he was not slow to return her hatred with scorn.
In the summer of 1792 he was present for a short time with the army of the north, with his two sons, the duke of Chartres and the duke of Montpensier, but had returned to Paris before the 10th of August.
The head of the college, the abbe Antoine Faure, who was from the same part of the country as himself, befriended the lad, and continued to do so for many years after he had finished his course, finding him pupils and ultimately obtaining for him the post of tutor to the young duke of Chartres, afterwards the regent duke of Orleans.
- - Chartres, Meaux, Orleans, Blois, Versailles.
By the 1859 conventions the state railway system obtained an entry into Paris by means of running powers over the Ouest from Chartres, and its position was further improved by the exchange of certain lines with the Orleans company.
Of England at Chartres, and in March, at Liege, with xiv.
JACQUES PIERRE BRISSOT (1754-1793), who assumed the name of DE Warville, a celebrated French Girondist, was born at Chartres, where his father was an inn-keeper, in January 1754.
A similar doctrine of emanation is to be found in the writings of Bernhard of Chartres, who conceives the process of the unfolding of the world as a movement in a circle from the most general to the individual, and from this back to the most general.
He was educated under Bernard of Chartres and Anselm of Laon.
After teaching for about twenty years in Chartres, he lectured on dialectics and theology in Paris (from 1137), and in 1141 returned to Poitiers, being elected bishop in the following year.
Amiens and Chartres, at three churches in Rome, and in certain cathedrals elsewhere in Italy.
Fulcher of Chartres originally followed Robert of Normandy, but in October 1097 he joined Baldwin of Lorraine in his expedition to Edessa, and afterwards followed his fortunes.
1088), medieval theologian, was born at Tours early in the iith century; he was educated in the famous school of Fulbert of Chartres, but even in early life seems to have exhibited great independence of judgment.
'BEAUVILLIER, the name of a very ancient French family belonging to the country around Chartres, members of which are found filling court offices from the 15th century onward.
One of the earliest plans of Jerusalem is contained in Gesta Francorum, a history of the Crusades up to 1106, based upon information furnished by Fulcherius of Chartres (c. 1109).
The department has Chartres for its capital, and is divided into the arrondissements of Chartres, Chateaudun, Dreux and Nogent-le-Rotrou (24 cantons and 426 communes).
It forms the diocese of Chartres (province of Paris), and belongs to the academic (educational division) of Paris and the region of the IV.
Chartres, Dreux, Chateaudun, Nogent-le-Rotrou and Anet are the more noteworthy places in the department.
CHARTRES, a city of north-western France, capital of the department of Eure-et-Loir, 55 m.
Chartres is built on the left bank of the Eure, on a hill crowned by its famous cathedral, the spires of which are a landmark in the surrounding country.
Of the other churches of Chartres the chief are St Aignan (13th, 16th and 17th centuries) and St Martin-auVal (12th century).
The game-pies and other delicacies of Chartres are well known, and the industries also include flour-milling, brewing, distilling, iron-founding, leather manufacture, dyeing, and the manufacture of stained glass, billiard requisites, hosiery, &c.
Chartres was one of the principal towns of the Carnutes, and by the Romans was called Autricum, from the river Autura (Eure), and afterwards civitas Carnutum.
The title of duke of Chartres was hereditary in the family of Orleans.
Bulteau, Monographie de la cathe'drale de Chartres (1887); A.
Plerval, Chartres, sa cathe'drale, ses monuments (1896); H.
Masse, Chartres: its Cathedral and Churches (1900).
Somewhat apart from current controversies stood the teaching of the school of Chartres, humanistically nourished on the study of the ancients, and important as a revival of Platonism in opposition to the formalism of the Aristotelians.
Bernard of Chartres, at the beginning of the 12th century, endeavoured, according to John of Salisbury, to reconcile Plato and Aristotle; but his doctrine is almost wholly derived from the former through St Augustine and the commentary of Chalcidius.
After rapidly completing his classical studies at the lycee at Chartres, he spent some time in the administrative service and in journalism.
See P. Pelicier, Essai sur le gouvernement de la Dame de Beaujeu (Chartres, 1882).
His son and successor, Julien Marie Gaston, born at Chartres on the 27th of March 1833, was an active legitimist deputy in the Assembly chosen at the close of the German War of 1870-1871.
By the peace of Chartres (March 9, 1409) the king absolved him from the crime, and Valentina Visconti, the widow of the murdered duke, and her children pledged themselves to a reconciliation; while an edict of the 27th of December 1409 gave John the guardianship of the dauphin.
But "on the holiest soil of history, he gave his people a fatherland"; and Fulcher of Chartres, his chaplain, who paints at the beginning of Baldwin's reign the terrors of the lonely band of Christians in the midst of their foes, can celebrate at the end the formation of a new nation in the East (qui fuimus occidentales, nunc facti sumus orientales) - an achievement which, so far as it was the work of any one man, was the work of Baldwin I.
In 524, after the murder of Chlodomer's children, Childebert annexed the cities of Chartres and Orleans.
This journey forms the subject of a window in the cathedral of Chartres, and there was originally a similar one at Saint-Denis.
John of Salisbury attended Abelard's lectures in 1136, and, after spending two years in the study of logic in Paris, passed three more in the scholarly study of Latin literature at Chartres, where a sound and healthy tradition, originally due to Bernard of Chartres (fl.
Clerval, Les Ecoles de Chartres au moyen age, 1895).
In 1176 he was made bishop of Chartres, where he passed the remainder of his life.
He died at or near Chartres on the 25th of October i180.
He was a humanist before the Renaissance, surpassing all other representatives of the school of Chartres in his knowledge of the Latin classics, as in the purity of his style, which was evidently moulded on that of Cicero.
Disorders provoked by the struggle brought about a reaction, which was organized by certain prelates who advocated a policy of conciliation, such as the Frenchman Ivo, bishop of Chartres (c. 1040-1116).
He was also well versed in the medical science of his time, and in 991 travelled to Chartres to consult the medical MSS.
Chartres is its chief commercial centre.
Known since 1785 as the duc de Chartres, he was sixteen at the outbreak of the Revolution, into which - like his father - he threw himself with ardour.
The republic had meanwhile been proclaimed, and the duc de Chartres, who like his father had taken the name of Egalite, posed as its zealous adherent.
Louis Philippe himself published the Journal du duc de Chartres, 1 79 0 - 1 79 1; Mon Journal, eve'nements de 1815 (2 vols., 1 849); Discours, allocutions et reponses de S.
The great east window at Wells and the window at the west end of the nave at Chartres are fine examples.
Was crowned at Reims. Charles's intimate counsellors, La Tremoille and Regnault de Chartres, archbishop of Reims, saw their profits menaced by the triumphs of Joan of Arc, and accordingly the court put every difficulty in the way of her military career, and received the news of her capture before Compiegne (1430) with indifference.
In France St Martin remained the chief goal of the pilgrim; while Notre Dame de Sous-Terre in Chartres (with a portrait of the "black Virgin"), Le Puy-en-Velay (dep. Haute Loire), and others, also enjoyed considerable celebrity.
The Orleanists were driven into exile, and the duchess proceeded with her two sons, the comte de Paris and the duc de Chartres, first to Eisenach in Saxony, and then to Claremont in Surrey.
Chief of these were Kaskaskia, established near the mouth of the Kaskaskia river, about 1720; Cahokia, a little below the mouth of the Missouri river, founded at about the same time; and Fort Chartres, on the Mississippi between Cahokia and Kaskaskia, founded in 1720 to be a link in a chain of fortifications intended to extend from the St Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico.
Their territory corresponded to the dioceses of Chartres, Orleans and Blois, that is, the greater part of the modern departments of Eure-et-Loir, Loiret, Loir-et-Cher.
Up to the 3rd century Autricum (later Carnutes, whence Chartres) was the capital, but in 275 Aurelian changed Cenabum from a vicus into a civitas and named it Aurelianum or Aurelianensis urbs (whence Orleans).
The elongated kings that guard the door of Chartres Cathedral, or the portals with the Last Judgment, are a necessary element in the façade.