In 1733 he had established a press in Charleston, South Carolina, and soon after did the same in Lancaster, Pa., in New Haven, Conn., in New York, in Antigua, in Kingston, Jamaica, and in other places.
In 1771 Thomas Jefferson described a " burning spring " in the Kanawha Valley, and when wells were drilled for salt brine near Charleston petroleum and natural gas were found here before there was any drilling for oil in Pennsylvania.
The principal cities of the state are Wheeling, Huntington, Parkersburg, Charleston (the capital), Martinsburg, Fairmont and Grafton.
The Supreme Court of Appeals, consisting of five judges, elected for terms of twelve years, holds three terms annually, one at Wheeling, one at Charleston and one at Charles Town.
Huguenot churches were formed on Staten Island, New York, in 1665; in New York City in 1683; at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1686; at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1687; at New Rochelle, New York, in 1688; and at other places.
The Charleston church alone of these early churches maintains its independence of any American denomination.
At Charleston a mixed congregation of Scotch Presbyterians and English Puritans was organized in 1690.
HUGH SWINTON LEGARE (1797-1843), American lawyer and statesman, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on the 2nd of January 1797, of Huguenot and Scotch stock.
See The Writings of Hugh Swinton Legare (2 vols., Charleston, S.C., 1846), edited by his sister, Mrs Mary Bullen, who contributed a biographical sketch; and two articles by B.
The first American-built loccmotive, the Best Friend, of Charleston, was made at the West Point Foundry, New York, in 1830, and was put to work on the South Carolina railroad in that year.
Those who believe the " Declaration " to be spurious argue that survivors remembered only one such document, that the Resolutions might easily be thought of as a declaration of independence, that Governor Martin in all probability had knowledge only of these and not of the alleged " Declaration," and that the dates of publication in the Raleigh and Charleston newspapers, and the politics of those papers, show that the Resolutions are authentic. In July 1905 there appeared in Collier's Weekly (New York) what purported to be a facsimile reproduction of a copy of the Cape Fear Mercury which was referred to by Governor Martin and which contained the " Declaration "; but this was proved a forgery.'
Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston, showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.
In 1706 a Spanish and French expedition against Charleston, South Carolina, failed, and the Carolinians retaliated by invading middle Florida in 1708 and again in 1722.
Beauregard, and was made the centre of the new line along the Memphis & Charleston railway, "the great East and West artery of the Confederacy."
THOMAS PINCKNEY (1750-1828), American statesman and diplomat, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on the 23rd of October 1750, a younger brother of Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.
Educated in England, he returned to Charleston in 1773, and was admitted to the bar in 1774.
During the War of Independence his early training at the French military college at Caen enabled him to render effective service to General Benjamin Lincoln in 1778-1779, to Count d'Estaing (1779), to General Lincoln in the defence of Charleston and afterwards to General Horatio Gates.
He died in Charleston on the 2nd of November 1828.
CHRISTOPHER GADSDEN (1724-1805), American patriot, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1724.
He was lieutenant-governor of his state in 1780, when Charleston was surrendered to the British.
For about three months following this event he was held as a prisoner on parole within the limits of Charleston; then, because of his influence in deterring others from exchanging their paroles for the privileges of British subjects, he was seized, taken to St Augustine, Florida, and there, because he would not give another parole to those who had violated the former agreement affecting him, he was confined for forty-two weeks in a dungeon.
He died in Charleston on the 28th of August 1805.
CHARLESTON, the capital of West Virginia, U.S.A., and the county-seat of Kanawha county, situated near the centre of the state, on the N.
Charleston is in the midst of a region rich in bituminous coal, the shipment of which by river and rail constitutes one of its principal industries.
The first permanent white settlement at Charleston was made soon after the close of the War of Independence; it was one of the places through which the streams of immigrants entered the; Ohio Valley, and it became of considerable importance as a centre of transfer and shipment, but it was not until the development of the coalmining region that it became industrially important.
Charleston was incorporated in 1794, and was chartered as a city in 1870.
Lake Charles was settled about 1852, largely by people from Iowa and neighbouring states, was incorporated as a town in 1857 under the name of Charleston and again in 1867 under its present name, and was chartered as a city in 1886.
At the National Democratic Convention at Charleston, S.
In 1860 he presided over the National Democratic Convention which met first at Charleston and later at Baltimore, until he joined those who seceded from the regular convention; he then presided also over the convention of the seceding delegates, who nominated John C. Breckinridge for the presidency.
Jamison (Charleston, 1863), which was translated into French (1866) by order of Marshal Count Randon, minister of war; also S.
In South Carolina, where there are important deposits of phosphate, formerly more productive than at present, the " land rock " is worked near Charleston, and the " river rock " in the Coosaw River and other streams near Beaufort.
For a year following the capture of Charleston by the British in May 1780, during the War of Independence, Camden was the centre of important military operations.
Charleston, Illinois >>
- South Carolina, finding other means of seizing or regaining Fort Sumter at Charleston ineffectual, ushered in the great struggle by the bombardment of the 12th of April 1861.
This very considerable success thrust back Johnston's whole line to New Madrid, Corinth and the Memphis & Charleston railway.
Mitchel with a division was sent straight southwards from the same place to cut the Memphis & Charleston line.
Charleston was attacked without success in 1862, but from June to August 1863 it was besieged by General Gillmore and Admiral Dahlgren, and under great difficulties the Federals secured a lodgment, though it was not until Sherman appeared on the land side early in 1865 that the Confederate defence collapsed, Fort Fisher near Wilmington also underwent a memorable siege by land and sea.
One corps of the Army of the Tennessee was detached to cover the Memphis & Charleston railway.
Many of the greater combats in which the navy was engaged on the coast and inland have been referred to above, and thefightingbefore Charleston,NewOrleans, Mobile and Vicksburg is described in separate articles.
An isolated attack on Charleston, South Carolina, had been made by Sir Henry Clinton and Sir Peter Parker as early as June 1776, but this was foiled by the spirited resistance of General William Moultrie; after 1778 the southern attempts, stimulated in part by the activity of the French in the West Indies, were vigorously sustained.
Marching upon Charleston, Clinton compelled Lincoln to surrender on the 12th of May.
They fell upon isolated British posts established to protect the Loyalist population, and generally captured or broke them up. Rawdon found himself unable with his diminishing force to cover the country beyond Charleston; and he fell back to that place, leaving the situation in the south as it had been in the early part of 1780.
Charleston, S.C., was evacuated late in 1782; New York on the 25th of November 1783.
Only one of the original six (Charleston) was in the true South, which was distinctly rural.
Savannah and Charleston are other great ports and southern outlets, particularly for cotton.
Augusta is served by the Southern, the Augusta Southern (controlled by the Southern), the Atlantic Coast Line, the Charleston & Western Carolina (controlled by the Atlantic Coast Line), the Georgia and the Central of Georgia railways, by an electric line to Aiken, South Carolina, and by a line of steamers to Savannah.
The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852, but the feeling of uncertainty engendered in the south by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the course of the slavery agitation after 1852 led the State Democratic convention of 1856 to revive the "Alabama Platform"; and when the "Alabama Platform" failed to secure the formal approval of the Democratic National convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, the Alabama delegates, followed by those of the other cotton "states," withdrew.
BASIL LANNEAU GILDERSLEEVE (1831-), American classical scholar, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, on the 23rd of October 1831, son of Benjamin Gildersleeve (1791-1875) a Presbyterian evangelist, and editor of the Charleston Christian Observer in 1826-1845, of the Richmond (Va.) Watchman and Observer in 1845-1856, and of The Central Presbyterian in 1856-1860.
Of Charleston, W.
JOHN RUTLEDGE (1739-1800), American jurist and politician, was born in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1739.
He studied law in London and began to practise in Charleston in 1761.
His mind failed late in 1795, and he died in Charleston on the 23rd of July 1800.
His brother, Edward Rutledge (1749-1800), a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was born in Charleston on the 23rd of November 1749.
He studied law in his brother's office, and in London in 1769-73, and began to practise in Charleston in 1773.
As captain of artillery and later as lieutenant-colonel he served against the British in South Carolina in 1779-80, but he was captured near Charleston in 1780, and was imprisoned at St Augustine, Florida, for a year.
From 1798 until his death in Charleston, on the 23rd of January 1800, he was governor of South Carolina.
For his health the king visited California in the United States cruiser " Charleston " in November 1890, and died on the 10th of January 1891 in San Francisco.
The legislature of Virginia appointed him a commissioner to confer with President Buchanan and arrange, if possible, for the maintenance of the status quo in the matter of Fort Sumter, in Charleston harbour; but his efforts were unavailing.
At last Charleston, in South Carolina, was taken by the British.
The British soldiers soon returned to Charleston, and he was allowed to go home.