Under Charlemagne and his successors it was not used.
He sent an embassy to Charlemagne in 768 and was deposed in 774, whereupon he fled to Bamburgh and afterwards to the Picts.
After the death of Charlemagne the Moravian princes took advantage of the dissensions of his successors to enlarge their territories and assert their independence, and Rastislaus (c. 850) even formed an alliance with the Bulgarians and the Byzantine emperor.
Towards the end of the century, Charlemagne, himself a Netherlander by descent and ancestral possessions, after a severe struggle, thoroughly subdued the Frisians and Saxons, and compelled them to embrace Christianity.
When Charles the Great (Charlemagne) deposed his father-in- lin~as.
There are many fine streets and squares and some handsome public monuments, notably among the last the fountain on the market square surmounted by a statue of Charlemagne, the bronze equestrian statue of the emperor William I.
It has an Evangelical church with painted windows representing scenes in the life of Charlemagne, a Roman Catholic church and a synagogue.
Already under Charlemagne this development is noticeable; in his generous treatment of the Jews this Christian emperor stood in marked contrast to his contemporary the caliph Harun al-Rashid, who persecuted Jews and Christians with equal vigour.
Under Charlemagne, the Jews, who had begun to settle in Gaul in the time of Caesar, were more than tolerated.
Towards the end of the 8th century they aided Charlemagne in putting an end to the Avar kingdom, and were rewarded by receiving part of it, corresponding to North Hungary, as a fief of the German emperor, whose supremacy they also acknowledged more or less for their other possessions.
71), of the 28th of October 797, in which Charlemagne shows less brutality and pronounces simple compositions for misdeeds which formerly entailed death.
That Charlemagne and Richard I.
Soon Hessegau is mentioned, and this district was the headquarters of Charlemagne during his campaigns against the Saxons.
In 808 Charlemagne took the abbey of St-Gilles under his protection, and it is mentioned among the monasteries from which only prayers for the prince and the state were due.
The rout of Charlemagne in 77 8, which has been associated with Fontarabia, by Milton (Paradise Lost, i.
This change synchronized with the revival of the Western Empire under Charlemagne, a revival which necessarily gave an impulse to the claims of the see of Rome.
The adoption of the Roman liturgical dress had, however, at most an indirect connexion with these claims. Charlemagne was active in prescribing the adoption of the Roman use; but this was only as part of his general policy in the organization of his em pire.
He taught at the lycee Charlemagne in 1853, and in the school of architecture 1865-1871, but his energies were mainly devoted to various scientific missions entrusted to him.
The cycle of Guillaume has more unity than the other great cycles of Charlemagne or of Doon de Mayence, the various poems which compose it forming branches of the main story rather than independent epic poems. There exist numerous cyclic MSS.
He became one of the best soldiers and trusted counsellors of Charlemagne, and in 790 was made count of Toulouse, when Charles's son Louis the Pious was put under his charge.
In 803 and 810 he made a treaty with Charlemagne, by which the limits of the two empires were amicably fixed.
Their remains were buried at Soissons, but were afterwards removed, partly by Charlemagne to Osnabruck (where a festival is observed annually on the 10th of June) and partly to the chapel of St Lawrence in Rome.
After the death of Charlemagne, Alsace, like the rest of the empire, was divided into countships.
By these alliances the new Charlemagne seemed to have founded his supremacy in South Germany on sure foundations.
Napoleon determined that he, like all the Bonapartist rulers, should act merely as a Napoleonic satrap. They were to be to him what the counts of the marches were to Charlemagne, warlike feudatories defending the empire or overawing its prospective foes.
Was arrested at Rome for presuming to excommunicate the successor of Charlemagne, and was deported to Grenoble and later on to Savona.
814), Frankish Latin poet, and minister of Charlemagne, was of noble Frankish parentage, and educated at the palace school under Alcuin.
He accompanied Charlemagne to Rome in Boo and was one of the witnesses to his will in 814.
Angilbert was the Homer of the emperor's literary circle, and was the probable author of an epic, of which the fragment which has been preserved describes the life at the palace and the meeting between Charlemagne and Leo III.
Of the shorter poems, besides the greeting to Pippin on his return from the campaign against the Avars (796), an epistle to David (Charlemagne) incidentally reveals a delightful picture of the poet living with his children in a house surrounded by pleasant gardens near the emperor's palace.
Charlemagne, Pippin's son, descended upon Italy, broke up the Lombard kingdom (774), confirmed his father's donation to the pope, and in reprisals for Venetian assistance to the exarch, ordered the pope to expel the Venetians from the Pentapolis.
He and his followers plotted the murder of the doge, were discovered, and sought safety at the court of Charlemagne, where Fortunatus strongly urged the Franks to attack the lagoons.
A treaty between Charlemagne and Nicephorus (81o) recognized the Venetians as subjects of the Eastern empire, while preserving to them the trading rights on the mainland of Italy which they had acquired under Liutprand.
Under Charlemagne it constituted a margravate, which in 843 passed into the hands of Louis the German, whose grandson Arnulf was the first to bear the title of duke of Carinthia.
Gladbach existed before the time of Charlemagne, and a Benedictine monastery was founded near it in 793.
Charlemagne founded a hospital and a library in the Holy City; and later legend, when it made him the first of crusaders and the conqueror of the Holy Land, was not without some basis of fact.
Manuel Comnenus demanded that all conquests made by the crusaders should be his fiefs; and the question was debated whether the crusaders should follow the land route through Hungary, along the old road of Charlemagne, or should go by sea to the Holy Land.
Pippin died on the 24th of September 768 at St Denis, leaving two sons, Charles (Charlemagne) and Carloman.
Hamburg probably had its origin in a fortress erected in 808 by Charlemagne, on an elevation between the Elbe and Alster, as a defence against the Sla y s, and called Hammaburg because of the surrounding forest (Hamme).
In 811 Charlemagne founded a church here, perhaps on the site of a Saxon place of sacrifice, and this became a great centre for the evangelization of the north of Europe, missionaries from Hamburg introducing Christianity into Jutland and the Danish islands and even into Sweden and Norway.
In the Norse version of the Carolingian epic Guillaume appears in his proper historical environment, as a chief under Charlemagne; but he plays a leading part in the Couronnement Looys, describing the formal associations of Louis the Pious in the empire at Aix (813, the year after Guillaume's death), and after the battle of Aliscans it is from the emperor Louis that he seeks reinforcements.
' The poem of Aymeri de Narbonne contains the account of the young Aymeri's brilliant capture of Narbonne, which he then receives as a fief from Charlemagne, of his marriage with Ermenjart, sister of Boniface, king of the Lombards, and of their children.
When feudal possessions, instead of being purely personal, were vested in the families of the holder after the death of Charlemagne, Tournai was specially assigned to Baldwin of the Iron Arm by [[Charles (disambiguation)|Charles Knights Jousting With Cronells On Tt-Tfir Lances]].
Your Holiness (he wrote) is sovereign of Rome, but I am its emperor; and he threatened to annul the presumed donation of Rome by Charlemagne, unless the pope yielded implicit obedience to him in all temporal affairs.
Here again he cited the action of Charlemagne, his august predecessor, who had merely given certain domains to the bishops of Rome as fiefs, though Rome did not thereby cease to be part of his empire.
Are the codex aureus, a copy of the gospels presented to the abbey of St Maximin by Ada, a reputed sister of Charlemagne, and the codex Egberti of the 10th century.
In the matter of criminal jurisdiction we paused for a moment at the edict of Milan; but we may at once trace this second or civil branch of episcopal judicature or quasi-judicature down as far as the reign of Charlemagne, when it underwent a fundamental change, and became, if either litigant once chose, no longer a matter of consent but of right.
On the revival of the Western Empire, however, Charlemagne, in the beginning of the 9th century, under the mistaken belief that he was following the authority of Constantine I.
765 King Pippin had a " palace" here, in which it is probable that Charlemagne was born.
The contrast between the new regime and the ancient tradition of the city was curiously illustrated in 1818 by a scene described in Metternich's Memoirs, when, before the opening of the congress, Francis I., emperor of Austria, regarded by all Germany as the successor of the Holy Roman emperors, knelt at the tomb of Charlemagne amid a worshipping crowd, while the Protestant Frederick William III.
Nieder-Ingelheim is, according to one tradition, the birthplace of Charlemagne, and it possesses the ruins of an old palace built by that emperor between 768 and 774.
Conquered by Charlemagne, the most of the district was bestowed on the duke of Friuli; but in the 10th century the title of margrave of Carniola began to be borne by a family resident in the castle of Kieselberg near Krainburg.
The name of Pomore, or Pommern, meaning "on the sea," was given to the district by the latter of the tribes about the time of Charlemagne, and it has often changed its political and geographical significance.
Underneath the dome, according to tradition, was the tomb of Charlemagne, which, on being opened by Otto III.