The reburnt and cooled char is collected and sent back to the char cisterns.
On the north-east the principal heights are Ben Slioch (3217 ft.), whose sugar-loaf form dominates the landscape, Ben Lair (2817) and Ben Airidh-a-Char (2593), and, on the south-west, the peaks of Ben Eay, four of which exceed 3000 ft.
Fish taken in the lakes include perch, pike, char and trout in Windermere, Ennerdale, Bassenthwaite, Derwentwater, &c., and the gwyniad or fresh-water herring in Ullswater.
The albumins contain in all cases the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen; their composition, however, varies within certain limits: C= 50-55%, H = 6.9-7'.3%,N = 15-19%,S =0.32.4%7 0=1 92 4%, General char- crystallized albumin is C = 51.48%, H = 6.76%, N= acters.
The liquid is now run into neutralizing tanks containing sodium carbonate, and, after settling, the supernatant liquid, termed "light liquor," is run through bag filters and then on to bone-char filters, which have been previously used for the "heavy liquor."
This is filtered through fresh bone-char filters, from which it is discharged as a practically colourless liquid.
All sugars are colourless solids or syrups, which char on strong heating; they are soluble in water, forming sweet solutions but difficultly soluble in alcohol.
The char is then " settled " by water being slowly run on to it, in order to prevent the syrup making channels for itself and not permeating the whole mass evenly.
The syrup in the cistern is allowed to remain for about twelve hours, by which time the char will have absorbed all the colouring matter in it, as well as the lime.
Below each retort, and attached to it, is a cooler formed of thin sheet-iron, which receives the hot char as it passes from the retort, and at the bottom of the cooler is an arrangement of valves which permits a certain amount of char to drop out and no more.
In the best-appointed refineries the whole of the work in connexion with the char is performed mechanically, with the exception of packing the filter cisterns with fresh char and emptying the spent and washed char on to the carrying bands.
With nearly 35% of the total surface of the country under permanent pasture, cattle-breeding forms one of the most char acteristic industries of the country.
Word, formed from char, a car), in antiquity, a conveyance (Gr.
Irideus) has thriven in New Zealand, and the brook char of the same continent (S.
The few sportsmen who have visited the higher parts of the great northern rivers have found excellent trout-fishing, with pike, perch, char and grayling, the char occurring in the uppermost parts of the rivers, and the grayling below them.
With the rich it is often of gauze, and much embroidered with gold thread,pearls, &c. The head is usually covered with a char-kadd, or large square of embroidered silk or cotton, folded so as to display the corners, and fastened under the chin by a brooch.
The ends of the char-kadd cover the shoulders, but the gauze pirahan is quite transparent.
The hair, though generally hidden by the char-kadd, is at times exposed and plaited into innumerable little tails of great length, while a coquettish little skull-cap of embroidery, or shawl, or colored silk is worn.
The officials charged with the administration of justice according to the shar are judges, called sheik/i-ui-islam and kazi (had/i, kadi or cadi of Arabs and Turks), members of the clergy appointed by the government and receiving a fixed salary, but some cities are without regular appointed judges and the title of cadi is almost obsolete; decisions according to the .char are given by all members of the clergy, ranging from ignorant mullahs of little villages and cantons to learned mujiahids of the great cities.
In diameter, which afforded the first indications of the spiral structure shown in recent photographs to be the most prevalent char- Lord acteristic of nebulae.
High, and of such diameter as to hold a given quantity of animal charcoal (also called " bone-black " and " char ") in proportion to the contemplated output of the refinery.
A cistern well packed with 20 tons of char will hold, in addition, about io tons of syrup, and after settling, this can be pressed out by allowing second quality syrup, also heated to nearly boiling point, to enter the cistern slowly from the top, or it may be pressed out by boiling water.
After the sweets have come away, cold water is passed through the char until no trace of lime or sulphate of lime is found in it; then a large manhole at the bottom of the cistern is opened, and the washed and spent char is removed.
In most modern refineries the cisterns are so arranged that the spent char falls on to a travelling band and is conducted to an elevator which carries it up to the drying floor of the charcoal kiln.
315-339), and Nicole Bozon, after having represented "Pride" as a feminine being whom he supposes to be the daughter of Lucifer, and after having fiercely attacked the women of his day in the Char d'Orgueil (Rom.
One of the most char-~
- Sensory to that of the Anthozoa, but this has been dis cells from the retina proved by the most recent investigations of o f Char y b d a e a, Hein (4) and Friedemann (3), who have shown highly magnified.
The bundles from the cotyledons pursue a direct course to the stele of the main axis, and do not assume the girdle-form char acteristic of the adult plant.
Now if this state be supposed established in a frictionless fluid, the con sideration of internal friction would simply extend the char acteristics found at any spot to the neighbourhood, and there fore if the boundary were a sphere and so for a frictionless fluid an exception, it would cease to be an exception when we allow for viscosity.
The sea pierces the islands in deep fjords, or separates them by narrow inlets through which tidal currents set with great violence, at speeds up to seven or eight knots an hour; and, as communications are maintained almost wholly by boat, the natives have need of expert watermanship. There are several lakes in which trout are abundant, and char also occur; the largest is Sdrvaag Lake in Vaagd, which is close to the sea, and discharges into it by a sheer fall of about 160 ft.
I hear a song sparrow singing from the bushes on the shore,--olit, olit, olit,--chip, chip, chip, che char,--che wiss, wiss, wiss.
Each cistern is fitted kith a perforated false bottom, on which a blanket or specially woven cloth is placed, to receive the char which is poured in from the top, and packed as evenly as possible until the cistern is filled.
This weak solution, called " sweet water," is sometimes used for melting the raw sugar, or it is evaporated in a multiple-effect apparatus to 27° Beaume density, passed through the char filter, and cooked in the vacuum pan like the other liquors.
The former perhaps produce a little better char, but the latter, working almost automatically, require less labour and attention for an equal amount of work, and on the whole have proved very satisfactory.
From the drying floor on which the spent char is heaped up it falls by gravitation into the retorts.
Every care should be taken to burn and char the sod thoroughly without permitting the heap to blaze.
These two zones are It is therefore in the forests of the Congo, and among the lagoons and estuaries of the Guinea coast, that this earlier culture will The char- most probably be found.