The Chanson de Roland, which cannot be posterior to the First Crusade - for the poem never alludes to it - already contains the idea of the Holy War against Islam.
New poems in abundance dealt with the history of the Crusades, either in a faithful narrative, like that of the Chanson of Ambroise, which narrates the Third Crusade, or in a free and poetical spirit, such as breathes in the Chanson d'Antioche.
1 In the Chanson des che'tifs and the Chanson d'Antioche the legend of the Crusades more certainly finds its expression.
This event is related in a Norman-French transcript of an old French chanson de geste, the Chancun de Willame - which only was brought to light in 1901 at the sale of the books of Sir Henry Hope Edwardes - in the Covenant Vivien, a recension of an older French chanson and in Aliscans.
Just as Arthur was eclipsed by his companions, so Charlemagne's vassal nobles, except in the Chanson de Roland, are exalted at the expense of the emperor, probably the result of the changed relations between the later emperors and their barons.
The character of Charlemagne himself undergoes a change; in the Chanson de Roland he is a venerable figure, mild and dignified, while later he appears as a cruel and typical tyrant (as is also the case with Ermanaric).
The brief chapters of his work have been justly compared to the laisses or tirades of a chanson in what may be called the vignetting of the subject of each, in the absence of any attempt to run on the narrative, in the stock forms, and in the poetical rather than prosaic word-order of the sentences.
The account in the Chanson de Roland of the trial of Ganelon after the battle of Roncesvalles must have been adopted almost intact from earlier poets, and provides a striking example of the value of the chansons de geste to the historian of manners and customs.
La destruction de Rome is a 13th-century version of the older chanson of the emir Balan, who collected an army in Spain and sailed to Rome.
Charlemagne's march on Saragossa, and the capture of Huesca, Barcelona and Girone, gave rise to La Prise de Pampelune (14th century, based on a lost chanson); and Gui de Bourgogne (12th century) tells how the children of the barons, after appointing Guy as king of France, set out to find and rescue their fathers, who are represented as having been fighting in Spain for twenty-seven years.
The Chanson de Roland relates the historic defeat of Roncesvalles on the 15th of August 778, and forms the very crown of the whole Carolingian legend.
Bernardo is the hero of a cantar de gesta (chanson de geste) written to please the anarchical spirit of the nobles.
We know that the Chanson de Roland was sung at the battle of Hastings, and we possess Anglo-Norman MSS.
The poem, which has been compared with the Chanson de Roland and the Romance of the Cid, undoubtedly contains a kernel of fact, although it cannot be regarded as in any sense an historical record.
1862), author of La Chanson d'un soir (1886), and Mon Cc ur pleure d'autrefois (1889); and Charles van Lerberghe (b.
The analogy of the French epic, the Chanson de Roland, favours the belief that there was some nucleus of fact.
The most instructive, perhaps the only instructive, parallel is to be found in the French " chansons de geste," of which the Chanson de Roland is the earliest and best example.
Monin, La Chanson et l'Eglise sous la Revolution (Paris, 1892); A.
P. Paris, 2 vols., 1848) and the Chanson de Jerusalem (ed.
This version of Peter's career seems as old as the Chanson des chetifs, a poem which Raymond of Antioch caused to be composed in honour of the Hermit and his followers, soon after 1130.
This saga found its most piquant beginning in the Hermit's vision at Jerusalem, and there it accordingly began - alike in Albert, followed by William of Tyre and in the Chanson des chetifs, followed by the later Chanson d'Antioche.