By New York and Lake Champlain, which separates it in part from New York.
Shore of Lake Champlain (96 ft.) to 4364 ft.
Into Lake Champlain or the Hudson river and those flowing S.E.
The line separating the Hudson-Champlain basin from the Connecticut basin runs among the Granitic Mountains; and extending 25 m.
Into Lake Memphremagog, the waters of which, like those of Lake Champlain, are tributary to the St Lawrence river.
The largest and only navigable rivers of Vermont are among those flowing into Lake Champlain: the Missisquoi, the Lamoille, the Winooski and Otter Creek.
Lake Champlain, which lies beautifully in the valley between the Green and Adirondack mountains, belongs mostly to Vermont.
Along the shore of Lake Champlain are a few species of maritime plants that remain from the time when portions of western Vermont were covered by the sea, and on the upper slopes of some of the higher mountains are a few Alpine species; these, however, are much less numerous on the Green Mountains of Vermont than on the White Mountains of New Hampshire.
The eastern section of the state is colder than the western, and the central or most mountainous section is still colder; for example, the mean annual temperature of Burlington, on Lake Champlain, is 46° F., while that of Saint Johnsbury, a little farther S.
In the Connecticut and Hudson-Champlain valleys the winds blow mostly from either the N.
Vermont was heavily forested with white pine, spruce and hemlock, and, in the southern part of the state and along the shore of Lake Champlain, with some hard woods.
Lake Champlain furnishes the only commerical fishing grounds in Vermont, with the exceptions of small catches of white fish in Lake Bomoseen, Lake St Catherine in Rutland county and Lake Memphremagog.
The most valuable fish taken was walleyed pike, and the catch of this fish and of pickerel from Lake Champlain in 1902 exceeded in value that from any other body of fresh water in the United States excepting Lake Huron and Lake Erie.
The first important industry of the state was "rafting" lumber from Vermont through Lake Champlain and the Richelieu and St Lawrence rivers to Quebec. Burlington became a great lumber market for a trade moving in the direction of Boston after the Richelieu river was blocked to navigation and railway transportation began, and in 1882 Burlington was the third lumber centre in the United States.
The principal railways are: the lines operated by the Boston & Maine system, extending along the eastern border from Brattleboro through Bellows Falls, and St Johnsbury to the Canada boundary (Vermont Valley, Sullivan County, and Connecticut & Passumpsic Rivers railways), with a line, the St Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railway, extending across the northern part of the state from Lunenburg to Maguam Bay; the Central Vermont railway (Grand Trunk system) which crosses the state diagonally from S.E.
Water communication is afforded by Lake Champlain to the south, for seven months of the year, by way of the Champlain canal, via Whitehall, New York, to Troy and the Hudson river and the Atlantic coast, and to the north by way of the Richelieu river and the Chambly canal to the St Lawrence.
The only river with traffic of commercial importance is Otter Creek, flowing northwards into the southern part of Lake Champlain and having a navigable length of 8 m.
The commerce on Lake Champlain is carried on chiefly through Burlington, the port of entry for the Vermont customs district.
Samuel de Champlain, as governor of Quebec, entered what is now Vermont in July 1609 in an expedition against the Iroquois, and thus laid the basis for the French claim.
He was instrumental in saving New York and Vermont from invasion by his brilliant victory of lake Champlain gained, on the nth of September 1814, with a flotilla of 14 vessels carrying 86 guns, over Captain George Downie's 16 vessels and 92 guns.
One of their most distinguished explorers was Samuel Champlain, a captain in the navy, French North who, after a remarkable journey through Mexico and the America.
COLCHESTER, a township of Chittenden county, Vermont, U.S.A., on Lake Champlain, immediately N.E.
At Mallett's Bay, an arm of Lake Champlain, 2 m.
Albany is a terminus of the New York Central & Hudson River, the Delaware & Hudson and the West Shore railways, and is also served by the Boston & Maine railway, by the Erie and Champlain canals (being a terminus of each), by steamboat lines on the Hudson river and by several inter-urban electric railways connecting with neighbouring cities.
During the French and Indian wars Albany was a starting-point for expeditions against Canada and the Lake Champlain country.
WHITEHALL, a village of Washington (disambiguation)|Washington county, New York, U.S.A., in a township of the same name on the Poultney river and the Champlain Canal, at the head of Lake Champlain, and 78 m.
End of Lake Champlain was granted to Colonel Philip Skene (1725-1810), who fought at Ticonderoga in 1758 and in 1759, and who established here in 1761 a settlement of about thirty families which he called Skenesborough and which was patented in 1765.
Saint Johnsbury is served by the Boston & Maine and the Saint Johnsbury & Lake Champlain railways.
Pring and Champlain at a later date coasted along what is now Massachusetts, but the map of Champlain is hardly recognizable.
Not a few of the leaders, notably Samuel de Champlain, who founded Quebec in 1608, were brave ingenious men, but the population provided no basis for a lasting colony.
A low gap also leads northward from the Hudson to the Champlain Valley across a pass only 147 ft.
The largest lake apart from Erie and Ontario is the beautiful Lake Champlain, which lies on the eastern boundary, partly in Vermont, and with the N.
In the Lake Champlain Valley and over 55 in.
The Champlain Canal, connecting the Erie with Lake Champlain, was also begun in 1817 and completed in 1823.
As, however, this decline was accompanied with a considerable decrease in the proportion of the country's exports which passed through the port of New York, interest in the canals revived, and in 1903 the electorate of the state authorized the issue of bonds to the amount of $101,000,000 for the purpose of increasing the capacity of the Erie, the Champlain and the Oswego canals, to make each navigable by barges of 1000 tons burden.
Other ports of entry are Buffalo and Dunkirk, on Lake Erie, Niagara Falls, on the Niagara river, Ogdensburg and Cape Vincent, on the St Lawrence river, Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain, Oswego, on Lake Ontario, Rochester, on the Genesee river, Albany and Syracuse in the interior, and Sag Harbor at the E.
In July of that year Samuel de Champlain discovered the lake which bears his name and on its shores led his Algonquian Indian allies against the Iroquois, thus provoking against his countrymen the hostility of a people who for years were to hold the balance of power between the English and the French in America.
In 1777 General John Burgoyne succeeded in taking Ticonderoga, but in the swampy forests southward from Lake Champlain he fought his way against heavy odds, and in the middle of October his campaign culminated disastrously in his surrender at Saratoga.
SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN (1567-1635), French explorer, colonial pioneer and first governor of French Canada, was born at Brouage, a small French port on the Bay of Biscay, in 1567.
The MS. account of his adventures, Bref Discours des Choses plus remarquables que Samuel Champlain de Brouage a recognises aux Indes Occidentales, is in the library at Dieppe.
In 1603 Champlain made his first voyage to Canada, being sent out by Aymar de Clermont, seigneur de Chastes, on whom the king had bestowed a patent.
Champlain at once established friendly relations with the Indians and explored the St Lawrence to the rapids above Montreal.
On his return he published an interesting and historically valuable little book, Des sauvages, ou voyage de Samuel Champlain de Brouage fait en la France Nouvelle.
With him, in 1604, Champlain was engaged in exploring the coast as far south as Cape Cod, in seeking a site for a new settlement, and in making surveys and charts..
Meanwhile the Basques and Bretons, asserting that they were being ruined by de Monts' privileges, got his patent revoked, and Champlain returned with the discouraged colonists to Europe.
When, however, in modified form, the patent was re-granted to his patron Champlain induced him to abandon Acadia and establish a settlement on the St Lawrence, of the commercial advantages of which, perhaps eyen as a western route to China and Japan, he soon convinced him.
Champlain was placed in command of one of the two vessels sent out.
Champlain fixed on the site of Quebec and founded the first white settlement there in July 1608, giving it its present name.
Champlain returned to France and again related to Henry IV.
An influential protector was needed; and Champlain prevailed upon Charles de Bourbon, comte de Soissons, to interest himself to obtain from the king the appointment of lieutenant-general in New France.
The comte de Soissons died almost immediately, and was succeeded in the office by Henri de Bourbon, prince de Conde, and he, like his predecessors and successors, retained Champlain as lieutenantgovernor.
"In Champlain alone was the life of New France.
In 1613 Champlain again crossed the Atlantic and endeavoured to confirm Nicolas de Vignau's alleged discovery of a short route to the ocean by the Ottawa river, a great lake at its source, and another river flowing north therefrom.
Champlain was taken to England a prisoner, but when Canada was restored to the French he returned (1633) to his post, where he died on the 25th of December 163 5.
Dionne, Champlain (1905).
Samuel de Champlain discovered the Isles of Shoals and sailed along the New Hampshire coast in 1605, and much more information concerning this part of the New World was gathered in 1614 by Captain John Smith, who in his Description of New England refers to the convenient harbour at the mouth of the Piscataqua and praises the country back from the rocky shore.
Of the Merrimac river, or to the northward of any and every part thereof," and extending west to the South Sea or Pacific Ocean, under the name of Massachusetts; to John Mason alone, on the 7th of November 1629, a grant of that portion of the " Province of Maine " which lay between the Merrimac and the Piscataqua, under the name of New Hampshire; to the Laconia Company, consisting of Gorges, Mason and associates, on the 17th of November 1629, a grant of an extensive territory (which was called Laconia) around the Lake of the Iroquois (Lake Champlain) together with one thousand acres at some place to be selected along the sea coast; to Edward Hilton, on the 12th of March 1630, the grant of a tract on and about the lower part of Dover Neck; to the Laconia Company, in November 1631, a grant of a tract on both sides of the Piscataqua river near its mouth, known as the Pescataway grant; and finally to John Mason, on the 22nd of April 1635, a short time before the Council surrendered its charter, a grant of the region between the Salem river on the south and the Piscataqua and Salmon Falls rivers on the north-east and extending 60 m.
The Laconia Company received - its first grant under the erroneous impression that the Piscataqua river had its source in or near Lake Champlain, and its principal object was to establish an extensive fur trade with the Iroquois Indians.
Although Lake Champlain could not be reached by;boat up the Piscataqua, and although the enterprise was ulti mately a failure, the company sent over colonists who occupied the house left standing by Thomson, and, not far away, built " Mason Hall " or the " Great House " in what is now Portsmouth, a name (for the entire settlement) that replaced " Strawberry Banke " in 1653.
Fort Ticonderoga, the key to the passage of Lakes George and Champlain to Canada, was surprised and, taken on the 10th of May by a small band under Colonel Ethan Allen, while Colonel Benedict Arnold headed an expedition through the Maine woods to effect the capture of Quebec, where Sir Guy Carleton commanded.
The destruction of his squadron on Lake Champlain in October covered the frontier of Canada, and supplied a basis for the march of General Burgoyne in 1777 which ended in the surrender at Saratoga.
In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.
In the north-west, before descent is made to the lowlands of the stratified belt (St Lawrence-Champlain-Hudson valleys, described later on as part of the Great Appalachian valley), and at the same time the rising uplands are diversified with monadnocks of increasing number and height and by mature valleys cut to greater and greater depths; thus the interior of New England is moderately mountainous.