Mithradates defeated Cotta, the Roman consul, at Chalcedon; but Lucullus worsted him, and drove him in 72 to take refuge in Armenia with his son-in-law Tigranes.
The date of his death is uncertain, but it must have been at least six or seven years later than the council of Chalcedon (451).
The third and fourth oecumenical synods (Ephesus, 43 1; Chalcedon, 451) were primarily tribunals for the trials of Nestorius and Dioscorus; it was secondarily that they became organs of the universal episcopate for the definition of the faith, or legislative assemblies for the enactment of canons.
At Chalcedon, on the other hand, the imperial commissioners decided points of order, kept the synod to the question, took the votes and adjourned the court.
An example of this is found in the ninth canon of Chalcedon, which also illustrates the enforcement upon a clerical plaintiff in dispute with a brother cleric of that recourse to the arbitration of their ecclesiastical superior already mentioned.
In response to the imperial summons, five to six hundred bishops, all Eastern, except the Roman legates and two Africans, assembled in Chalcedon on the Sth of October 451.
All these circumstances point to the council of Chalcedon (451).
Having made a fortune by teaching and lecturing in Chalcedon he spent the rest of his life chiefly at Athens, where he died.
SYNOD OF LAODICEA, held at Laodicea ad Lycum in Phrygia, some time between 343 and 381 (so Hefele; but Baronius argues for 314, and others for a date as late as 399), adopted sixty canons, chiefly disciplinary, which were declared ecumenical by the council of Chalcedon, 451.
At the Council of Chalcedon (451) the patriarchs still bore the title of " exarch "; it was not till the 7th century that that of " patriarch " was fixed as proper to the bishops of Constantinople, Alexandria, Antioch and Jerusalem, " exarch " being reserved for those of Ephesus and Caesarea, who had fallen to a lower rank.
The other notable event of his reign is the Council of Chalcedon (451), in which Marcian endeavoured to mediate between the rival schools of theology.
Meanwhile the Palmyrenes were pushing their influence not only in Egypt but in Asia Minor; they contrived to establish garrisons as far west as Ancyra and even Chalcedon opposite Byzantium, while still professing to act under the terms of the joint rule conferred by Gallienus.
The synod of Chalcedon in 451, following the lines of Pope Leo I.'s famous letter, endeavoured to steer a middle course between the so-called Nestorian and Eutychian positions.
But the followers of Cyril of Alexandria, and with them those of Eutyches, saw in the Chalcedon decree of two natures only another form of the "Nestorian" duality of persons in Christ, and rose everywhere in opposition.
The first stage of the controversy covers the seventy-five years between the council of Chalcedon and the accession of Justinian in 527.
On the advice of Acacius, the energetic patriarch of Constantinople, Zeno issued the Henotikon edict (482), in which Nestorius and Eutyches were condemned, the twelve chapters of Cyril accepted, and the Chalcedon Definition ignored.
Saw the prestige of his see involved in this slighting of Chalcedon and his predecessor Leo's epistle.
Thus they did not teach a dual personality, nor the old Antiochene view that Christ's divine exaltation was due to his sinless virtue; they were less concerned with old disputes than with the problem as the Chalcedon decision had left it - the relation of Christ's one personality to his two natures.
The Melchites therefore are those who accept the decrees of Ephesus and Chalcedon as distinguished from the Nestorians and Jacobite Church (qq.v.).
During a halt at Chalcedon, Numerianus was murdered, and Diocletian, commander of the body-guards, was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers.
4 On the ground of his writings he was condemned and deposed by the " robber synod " of Ephesus (449), but was restored by the Council of Chalcedon (451), after he had anathematized Nestorius.
Herophilus (335-280 B.C.) was a Greek of Chalcedon, a pupil of the schools both of Cos and of Cnidus.
In 624 he advanced into northern Media, where he destroyed the great fire-temple of Gandzak (Gazaca); in 626 he fought in Lazistan (Colchis), while Shahrbaraz advanced to Chalcedon, and tried in vain, united with the Avars, to conquer Constantinople.
On the accusation of the orthodox he was deposed by the "Robber Synod" of Ephesus, but at Chalcedon in 451 was pardoned on condition of anathematizing both Nestorius and Eutyches and accepting the Tome of Leo.
The years which followed the Council of Chalcedon (451) were a stormy period in the Syrian Church: Philoxenus soon attracted notice by his strenuous advocacy of Monophysite doctrine, and on the expulsion of Calandio (the orthodox patriarch of Antioch) in 485 was ordained bishop of Mabb5g 3 by his Monophysite successor Peter the Fuller (Barhebraeus, Chron.
Flavian II., who had accepted the decrees of the Council of Chalcedon and was patriarch of Antioch from 49 8 to 512.
The Church in the Creed of Chalcedon in A.D.
In the next century its use would seem to have been more common as the title of bishops of important sees; for several archbishops are stated to have been present at the council of Chalcedon in 451.
Council of Chalcedon, A.D.
Unfortunately the acts of the council have been lost, but they were quoted at the council of Chalcedon in A.D.
One of the signatories of the Definition of Faith made at Chalcedon, in which both creeds were quoted in full, Kalemikus, bishop of Apamea in Bithynia, refers to the council of Constantinople as having been held at the ordination of the most pious Nektarius the bishop. Obviously there was some connexion in his mind between the creed and the ordination.
In 408 Alcibiades effectively invested Chalcedon, which surrendered by agreement with Pharnabazus, and subsequently Byzantium also fell into his hands with the aid of some of its inhabitants.
The "chalcedonius" of Pliny was quite a different mineral, being a green stone from the copper-mines of Chalcedon, in Asia Minor, whence the name.
He then went to live at Chalcedon, whence in 367 he was banished to Mauretania for harbouring the rebel Procopius.
He afterwards resided at Chalcedon and at Caesarea in Cappadocia, from which he was expelled by the inhabitants for writing against their bishop Basil.
22), and it became the regular formula of excommunication from the time of the council of Chalcedon in 451, especially against heretics, e.g.
However, the eastern hankering after the eremitical life long survived, and it was only by dint of legislation, both ecclesiastical (council of Chalcedon) and civil (Justinian Code), that the Basilian cenobitic form of monasticism came to prevail throughout the Greek-speaking lands, though the eremitical forms have always maintained themselves.
Vows had been imposed on monks by the council of Chalcedon (451).
But later on, about 480, and throughout the following centuries, the Armenians rejected the decrees of Chalcedon and held that the assertion of two natures in Christ was a relapse into the heresy of Nestor.
The march of Arab conquest kept the Armenians friendly to Byzantium for a few years; but in 718 the catholicus John of Odsun ascended the throne and at the council of Manazkert in 728 repeated and confirmed the anathemas against Chalcedon and the tome of Leo, that had been first pronounced by the catholicus Babken in 491 at a synod held in Valarshapat by the united Armenian, Georgian or Iberian, and Albanian churches.
The Iberians still reverence as saints the Armenian doctors of the 5th century, but as early as 552 they began to resent the dictatorial methods of the Armenians, as well might a proud race of mountaineers who never wholly lost their political independence; and they broke off their allegiance to the Armenian see very soon afterwards, accepted Chalcedon and joined the Byzantine church.
Held against Chalcedon, uniting the Baptism and Christmas feasts on the 6th of January (Epiphany), declaring for monophysitism, and adopting in the Trisagion the words "who wast crucified for us."