The banks were crowded with stairs for boats, and the watermen of that day answered to the chairmen of a later date and the cabmen of to-day.
In those counties that have not adopted a township organization county affairs are administered by a board of county commissioners; where the township organization has been adopted the county government is administered by the chairmen of the several township boards.
During the rest of the century the leading landmarks are the three royal commissions known by the names of their chairmen: (1) Lord Clarendon's on nine public schools, Eton, Winchester, Westminster, Charterhouse, Harrow, Rugby, Shrewsbury, St Paul's and Merchant Taylors' (1861-1864), resulting in the Public Schools Act of 1868; (2) Lord Taunton's on 782 endowed schools (1864-1867), followed by the act of 1869; and (3) Mr Bryce's on secondary education (1894-1895).
There is a similar committee system, but the Senate committees and their chairmen are chosen, not by the presiding officer, but by the Senate itself voting by ballot.
The Department established in each county a body known as the secondary education committee, chosen by the county council and the chairmen of the school boards, which is charged with the expenditure of its share of the grant.
The chairmen of the several town boards of supervisors, with the The office of railroad commissioner was created in 1874, became elective in 1881 and was replaced under an act of 1905 by a commission of three members, which received jurisdiction over other public service corporations in 2907.
At the first vacancy the title and rank of chief baron of the exchequer will be abolished and the office reduced to a puisne judgeship. By the County Officers and Courts (Ireland) Act 1877, it was provided that the chairmen of quarter sessions should be called " county court judges and chairmen of quarter sessions " and that their number should be reduced to twenty-one, which was to include the recorders of Dublin, Belfast, Cork, Londonderry and Galway.
The government was determined not to use the Crimes Act, and the result was that offenders nearly always went unpunished, benches of magistrates being often swamped by the chairmen of district councils who were ex officio justices under the act of 1898.