About 1880, while the Gediz Chai was throwing its silt unchecked into the Gulf of Smyrna and gradually filling the navigable channel, there was talk of reviving Fokia as a new port for Smyrna, and connecting it with the Cassaba railway.
It then runs west, south and east round the rock-mass of Musher Dagh, and receives (right) the Kuru Chai, down which the Sivas-Malatia road runs, and the Tokhma Su, from Gorun (Gauraina) and Darende.
AK- HISSAR (anc. Thyateira, the "town of Thya"), a town situated in a fertile plain on the Giirdiik Chai (Lycus), in the Aidin vilayet, 58 m.
Gumri), a Russian town and fortified camp in Transcaucasia, government of Erivan, near the junction of the Arpa-chai with the Aras, 48 m.
The plain is watered by the Cydnus (Tarsus Chai), the Sarus (Sihun) and the Pyramus (Jihun), each of which brings down much silt.
ALA-SHEHR (anc. Philadelphia), a town of Asia Minor, in the Aidin vitayet, situated in the valley of the Kuzu Chai (Cogamus), at the foot of the Boz Dagh (Mt.
The mountain ranges to the north of the province abound with coal, notably at Chai-tang, Tai-gan-shan, Miao-gan-ling, and Fu-tao in the Si-shan or Western Hills.
"At Chai-tang," wrote Baron von Richthofen, "I was surprised to walk over a regular succession of coal-bearing strata, the thickness of which, estimating it step by step as I proceeded gradually from the lowest to the highest strata, exceeds 7000 ft."
ANI (anc. Abnicum), an ancient and ruined Armenian city, in Russian Transcaucasia, government Erivan, situated at an altitude of 4390 ft., between the Arpa-chai (Harpasus) and a deep ravine.
TABRIZ, the capital of the province of Azerbaijan in Persia, situated in the valley of the Aji Chai, "Bitter River," at an elevation of 4400 ft.
QUELPART (CHAI-Ju), an island to the south of Korea, used as a Korean penal settlement.
The government is divided into six districts, the chief towns of which are Baku (the capital of the government), Geok-chai (pop. 2247 in 1897), Kuba (15,346), Lenkoran (8768), Salyany (10,168), in district of Jevat, and Shemakha (20,008).
In Seoul there were established an imperial English school with two foreign teachers, a reorganized Confucian college, a normal college under a very efficient foreign principal, Japanese, Chinese, Russian and French schools, chiefly linguistic, several Korean primary schools, mission boarding-schools, and the Pai Chai College connected with the American Methodist Episcopal Church, under imperial patronage, and subsidized by government, in which a liberal education of a high class was given and En-mun receives much attention.
BOLI, the chief town of a sanjak of the Kastamuni vilayet in Asia Minor, altitude 2500 ft., situated in a rich plain watered by the Boli Su, a tributary of the Filiyas Chai (Billaeus).
The principal passes across the range are those over which Roman or Byzantine roads ran: - (i) from Laodicea to Adalia (Attalia), by way of the Khonas pass and the valley of the Istanoz Chai; (2) from Apamea or from Pisidian Antioch to Adalia, by Isbarta and Sagalassus; (3) from Laranda, by Coropissus and the upper valley of the southern Calycadnus, to Germanicopolis and thence to Anemourium or Kelenderis; (4) from Laranda, by the lower Calycadnus, to Claudiopolis and thence to Kelenderis or Seleucia; (5) from Iconium or Caesarea Mazaca, through the Cilician Gates (Gulek Boghaz, 3300 ft.) to Tarsus; (6) from Caesarea to the valley of the Sarus and thence to Flaviopolis on the Cilician Plain; (7) from Caesarea over Anti-Taurus by the Kuru Chai to Cocysus (Geuksun) and thence to Germanicia (Marash).
The principal passes are those followed by the old roads: - (1) from Sebasteia to Tephrike and the upper valley of the western Euphrates; (2) from Sebasteia to Melitene, by way of the pass of Delikli Tash and the basin of the Tokhma Su; (3) from Caesarea to Arabissus, by the Kuru Chai and the valley of Cocysus (Geuksun).
Into the Sea of Marmora run the Rhyndacus(Edrenos Chai) and the Macestus (Susurlu Chai), which unite about 12 m.
The most celebrated streams of the Troad are the Granicus (Bigha Chai) and the Scamander (Menderes Su), both rising in Mt.
The most northerly of the rivers that flow to the Aegean is the Caicus (Bakir Chai), which runs past Soma, and near Pergamum, to the Gulf of Chanderli.
The Hermus (Gediz Chai) has its principal sources in the Murad Dagh, and, receiving several streams on its way, runs through the volcanic district of Katakekaumene to the broad fertile valley through which it flows past Manisa to the sea, near Lefke.
Its principal tributaries are - the Phrygius (Kum Chai), which receives the waters of the Lycus (Giirduk Chai), and the Cogamus (Kuzu Chai), which in its upper course is separated from the valley of the Maeander by hills that were crossed by the Roman road from Pergamum to Laodicea.
The Maeander (Menderes Chai) takes its rise in a celebrated group of springs near Dineir, and after a winding course enters the broad valley, through which it "meanders" to the sea.
Its principal tributaries are the Glaucus, the Senarus (Banaz Chai), and the Hippurius, on the right bank.
On the left bank are the Lycus (Churuk Su), which flows westwards by Colossae through a broad open valley that affords the only natural approach to the elevated plateau, the Harpasus (Ak Chai), and the Marsyas (China Chai).
In Lycia are the Indus (Gereniz Chai), and the Xanthus (Eshen Chai).
The Pamphylian plain is traversed by the Cestrus (Ak Su), the Eurymedon (Keupri Su), and the Melas (Menavgat Chai), which, where it enters the sea, is a broad, deep stream, navigable for about 6 m.
The Cydnus (Tersous or Tarsus Chai) is formed by the junction of three streams that rise in Mt.
Paghesh), the chief town of a vilayet of the same name in Asiatic Turkey, situated at an altitude of 47 00 ft., in the deep, narrow valley of the Bitlis Chai, a tributary of the Tigris.
On both banks of the Khassa Chai, a tributary of the Tigris, known in its lower course as Adhem.
Fourteen rivers flow into the lake: the Aji Chai, Safi Chai, Mundi Chai and Jaghatu from the east, the Tatau (Tatava) from the south, and nine smaller rivers from the west.
Rising north of Teheran, the Kend and Kerej rivers, rising nrthwest of Teheran, the Shureh-rud (also called Abhar-rud), rising near Sultanieh on the road between Kazvin and Tabriz, and the Kara-su, which rises near Hamadan and is joined by the Zarinrud (also known as Do-ab), the Reza Chai (also called Mazdakanrud), the Jehrud River and the Kum-rud.
The remains of a fine aqueduct that once brought water from the Kiakhta Chai, which begins some 6 m.
" The Chinese recognize the following grades of opium: (I) ' raw opium,' as imported from India; (2) ' prepared opium,' opium made as above; (3) ' opium dross,' the scrapings from the opium pipe; this is reboiled and manufactured as a second-class prepared opium; a Chinese doctor stated lately at a coroner's inquest on a case of poisoning that it was more poisonous than the ordinary prepared opium; (4) ' nai chai ' (opium dirt), the insoluble residue left on exhausting the raw opium thoroughly with water.
It afterwards suffered frequently during the wars between the Persians, Armenians and Turks, and it finally passed into Russian possession by the peace of Turkman-chai in 1828.
The Turko-Russian War of 1828-29, which advanced the Russian frontier to the Arpa Chai, was followed by a large emigration of Armenians from Turkish to Russian territory, and a smaller exodus took place after the war of 1877-78, which gave Batum, Ardahan and Kars to Russia.