The external trade of the Russian empire (bullion and the external trade of Finland not included) since the year 1886 is shown in the following table: The exports rank in the following order :- cereals (wheat, barley, rye, oats, maize, buckwheat) and flour, 49.2%; timber and wooden wares, 7.2; petroleum, 5.8; eggs, 5.4; flax, 5; butter, 3; sugar, 2-4; cottons and oilcake, 2 each; oleaginous seeds, &c., 1.5; with hemp, spirits, poultry, game, bristles, hair, furs, leather, manganese ore, wool, caviare, live-stock, gutta-percha, vegetables and fruit, and tobacco.
The cereals are relatively unimportant.
The other cereals, millet and panico sorgo (Panicum italicum), have lost much of their importance in consequence of the introduction of maize and rice.
The gradual abolition of the grist tax on minor cereals diminished the surplus in 1882 to 236,000, and in 1883 to r1o,ooo, while the total repeal of the grist tax on wheat, which took effect on the 1st of January 1884, coincided with the opening of a new and disastrous period of deficit.
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
The elevation of a large part of the department gives it a temperate climate and permits the cultivation of cereals and other products of the temperate zone.
Malt, tinware, flour and grist-mill products, boilers, stoves and ranges, optical supplies, wall-paper, cereals, canned goods, cutlery, tin cans and wagons are manufactured, and there are also extensive nurseries.
Next to cereals and the vine the most important object of cultivation is the olive.
The chief diminution has taken place in the south in regard to oranges and lemons, cereals and (for some provinces) vines.
Was passed by the Chamber on 18th July 1879, providing for the immediate repeal of the grist tax on minor cereals, and for its total abolition on 1st January 1884.
Agriculture is still in a primitive condition; notwithstanding the fertility of the arable land the supply of cereals is far below the requirements of the population.
It stands at the head of the effective navigation on the Rhine, and is not only the largest port on the upper course of that stream, but is the principal emporium for south Germany for such commodities as cereals, coal, petroleum, timber, sugar and tobacco, with a large trade in hops, wine and other south German produce.
Gyula-Fellavar carries on an active trade in cereals, wine and cattle.
The growth of cereals is the largest department of agriculture followed.
The cereals of Europe are a source of increasing wealth to the nation, and alfalfa promises new prosperity for pastoral industries.
From Cartagena the principal exports are metallic ores, esparto grass, wine, cereals and fruit.
The exports of Aube consist of timber, cereals, agricultural products, hosiery, wine, dressed pork, &c.; its imports include wool and raw cotton, coal and machinery, especially looms. The department is served by the Eastern railway, of which the main line to Belfort crosses it.
The so-called eelworms (Nematodes) may do immense damage on roots and in the grains of cereals, and every one knows how predatory slugs and snails are.
For this reason these crops are known as " restorative," cereals the produce of which is sold off the farm being classed as " exhaustive."
But much less potash than phosphoric acid is exported in the cereal grains, much more being retained in the straw, whilst the other products of the rotation - the root and leguminous crops - which are also supposed to be retained on the farm, contain very much more potash than the cereals, and comparatively little of it is exported in meat and milk.
Agriculture is highly developed; cereals, principally wheat and oats, and beetroot are the chief crops; potatoes, flax, hemp, rape and hops are also grown.
The total export of cereals in 1898 was valued at £70,800.
Haviryajnas (meat-offerings), consisting of oblations (ishti) of milk, butter, cereals or flesh, and somayagas or oblations of the juice of the soma plant.
Lettuce, endive, beet, radish, cress; cereals; and fodder plants such as lucerne and carob.
Cereals occupy about one-third of the cultivated area.
Amongst imports raw materials (wool, cotton and silk, coal, oilseeds, timber, &c.) hold the first place, articles of food (cereals, wine, coffee, &c.) and manufactured goods (especially machinery) ranking next.
Turkestan is a good wheat-producing country, cereals were actually imported from Russia and Siberia and cotton exported in exchange.
It has some large breweries and manufactories of chemicals, and does a considerable trade in cereals, leather, timber and wine.
It has an active trade in cereals and cattle.
Albury is the centre of a sheeprearing and agricultural district; grapes, cereals and tobacco are largely grown, and the wine produced here is held in high repute throughout Australia.
The trade in fruit, cereals, oil and wine is considerable.
Trade is carried on in flax, cloth, cereals, oilseeds, &c.
It contains breweries, tanneries, sugar, tobacco, cloth, and silk factories, and exports skins, cloth, cocoons, cereals, attar of roses, "dried fruit, &c. Sofia forms the centre of a railway system radiating to Constantinople (300 m.), Belgrade (206 m.) and central Europe, Varna, Rustchuk and the Danube, and Kiustendil near the Macedonian frontier.
Out of the total acreage under cereals 34% is generally sown with rye, 26% with wheat, 20% with oats and 102% with barley.
The province produces much wheat, barley, rice, millet, cotton, but the authorities every now and then prohibiting the export of cereals, the people generally sow just as much as they think will suffice for their own wants.
The soil when reclaimed is well adapted for forage crops, cereals, vegetables and deciduous fruits.
There are flour-mills and a trade in cereals, wool, tallow and hides.
Cereals are imported from the Black Sea and Danube ports, ready-made clothing from Austria and Germany, articles of luxury from Austria and France, and cotton textiles from England.
The soil of the valleys is highly fertile, and produces cereals in the higher 1 So Isa.
The production of other cereals decreased during the latter half of the 19th century: oats, from 1,959,620 bushels in 1879 to 1,611,000 bushels in 1907; wheat, from 587,925 bushels in 1859 to 22,000 in 1907; rye, from 39,474 bushels in 1859 to 963 bushels in 1899, after which year the crop has been negligible; and rice, from 2,719,856 lb in 1849 to about 1,080,000 lb in 1907.
In the meantime the crops of cereals increased little, and stock raising generally decreased.
North of the tropic the winter cold is sufficient to admit of the cultivation of almost all the cereals and vegetables of Europe, wheat being sown in November and reaped early in April.
In this same region the summer heat and rain provide a thoroughly tropical climate, in which rice and other tropical cereals are freely raised, being as a rule sown early in July and reaped in September or October.
The other cereals may be seen occasionally, where artificial irrigation is practised, in all stages of progress at all seasons of the year, though the operations of agriculture are, as a general rule, limited to the rainy months, when alone is the requisite supply of water commonly forthcoming.
The principal imports are butter, woollens, timber, cereals, eggs, glass, cottons, preserved meat, wool, sugar and bacon.
It produces Indian corn and other cereals and potatoes in the colder regions, and tropical fruits, sweet potatoes and mandioca (Jatropha manihot, L.) in the low tropical valleys.
Farther south, heavy crops of wheat, turnips and other cereals and green crops are not uncommon, while barley is cultivated about Repton and Gresley, and also in the east of the county, in order to supply the Burton breweries.
But beyond the fact that both Babylonia and Assyria were large producers of cereals, little is known of their husbandry.
In addition to the cereals, beans, peas and vetches were grown to some extent.
Sheep were small and their fleeces light, nevertheless, owing to the meagreness of the yields of cereals' and the demand for wool for export, sheep-farming was looked to, as early as the 12th century, as the chief source of profit.
If the land taken from wheat had been cropped with one or both of the other cereals, the aggregate area would have remained about the same.
To the decline in prices of home-grown cereals the decrease in area is largely attributable.
- Gazette Annual Average Prices per Imperial Quarter of British Cereals in England and Wales, 1875-1905.
Of corn crops other than cereals, beans and peas are both less cultivated than formerly.
Taking cereals and pulse corn together, the aggregate areas of wheat, barley, oats, rye, beans and peas in the United Kingdom varied as follows over the six quinquennial intervals embraced in the period 1875-1905: - Year.
The distribution between the two islands of such important crops of arable land as cereals and potatoes is indicated in Table V.
The figures for cereals are important, as they indicate that it is the farmers of England who are the chief sufferers through the diminishing prices of corn; and particularly is this true of East Anglia, where corn-growing is more largely pursued than in anyother part of the Table Vi.
On the other hand, the season of 1898 was exceptionally favourable to cereals and to hay.
Moreover, the crops alternated with the cereals accumulate very much more of mineral constituents and of nitrogen in their produce than do the cereals themselves.
Aisne imports coal, iron, cotton and other raw material and machinery; it exports cereals, live-stock and agricultural products generally, and manufactured goods.
Rye, on the other hand, one of the least valuable of the cereals, is grown chiefly in the poor agricultural territories of the central plateau and western Brittany.