Ten segments can be distinguished in the tapering abdomen, the ninth frequently bearing a pair of tail-feelers (cerci), and the tenth, attached ventrally to the ninth, having the anal opening at its extremity and performing the function of a posterior limb, supporting and temporarily fixing the tail end of the insect on the surface over which it crawls.
The carabid larva is an active well-armoured grub with the legs and cerci variable in length.
With very few exceptions, the larva in this group is active and campodeiform, with cerci and elongate legs as in the Adephaga, but the leg has only four segments and one claw.
In the more generalized insects the abdomen evidently consists of ten segments, the hindmost of which often carries a pair of tail-feelers, (cerci or cercopods) and a terminal anal segment.
In some cases, however, it can be shown that the cerci really belong to an eleventh abdominal segment which usually becomes fused with the tenth.
Enderlein (1901) that these cerci clearly belong to a partially suppressed eleventh segment, and R.
The appendages of the abdomen are called cerci, stylets and gonapophyses.
The cerci, when present, appear in the mature insect to be attached to the tenth segment, but according to Heymons they are really appendages of the eleventh segment, their connexion with the tenth being secondary and the result of considerable changes that take place in the terminal segments.
It has been disputed whether any true cerci exist in the higher insects, but they are probably represented in the Diptera and in the scorpionflies (Mecaptera).
In those insects in which a median terminal appendage exists between the two cerci this is considered to be a prolongation of the eleventh tergite.
C. Bdrner (1904), for example, considers the presence or absence of cerci of great importance, while F.
Cerci always present; usually modified into unjointed forceps.
Jointed cerci always present; ovipositor well developed.
Prominent, unjointed cerci, male with genital armature on second abdominal segment.
Wingless, parasitic forms. Cerci absent.
Cerci present but usually reduced.
The Mecaptera, with their predominantly longitudinal wing-nervuration, serve as a link between the Neuroptera and the Trichoptera, their retention of small cerci being an archaic character which stamps them as synthetic in type, but does not necessarily remove them from orders which agree with them in most points of structure but which have lost the cerci.
The order must therefore be ancient, and as no evidence is forthcoming as to the mode of reduction of the hind-wings, nor as to the stages by which the suctorial mouth-organs became specialized, it is difficult to trace the exact relationship of the group, but the presence of cerci and a degree of correspondence in the nervuration of the forewings suggest the Mecaptera as possible allies.
The tenth abdominal segment carries a pair of jointed cerci which are often elongate, and the feelers are always long, while the jaws are usually feeble and membranous, though the typical parts of a mandibulate mouth are present - mandibles, maxillae with inner and outer lobes and palps, and second maxillae (labium) whose lacinae are not fused to form a ligula.
Cerci; magnified 24 times.
The insects included in this order differ from those of the two preceding orders in their more condensed abdomens which bear no cerci, while the number of Malpighian tubes is reduced to four.
In the absence of cerci the Corrodentia are more specialized than the Isoptera and Plecoptera, but some of them show a more primitive character in the retention of vestigial maxillulae - the minute pair of jaws that are found behind the mandibles in the Aptera.
The May-flies are remarkably primitive in certain of their characters, notably the elongate cerci, the paired, entirely mesodermal genital ducts, and the occurrence of an ecdysis after the acquisition of functional wings.
The tenth abdominal segment carries strong, unjointed cerci, while the presence of reproductive armature on the second abdominal segment of the male is a character found in no other order of the Hexapoda.
Structurally the Neuroptera are distinguished by elongate feelers, a large, free prothorax, a labium with the inner lobes of the second maxillae fused together to form a median ligula, membranous, net-veined wings without hairy covering, those of the two pairs being usually alike, the absence of abdominal cerci, and the presence of six or eight Malpighian tubes.
The larvae are active and well-armoured, upon the whole of the ' ` campodeiform " type, but destitute of cerci; they are predaceous in habit, usually with slender, sickle-shaped mandibles, wherewith they pierce various insects so as to suck their juices.
They may be distinguished from the Neuroptera by the elongation of the head into a beak, the small prothorax, the narrow, elongate wings with predominantly longitudinal neuration, the presence of abdominal cerci and the cruciform larva.
Jaws under Hexapoda); in the presence of a large number of excretory (Malpighian) tubes; in the firm texture of the forewings; in the presence of appendages (cerci) on the tenth abdominal segment; and in the absence of a metamorphosis, the young insect after hatching closely resembling the parent.
The Hemimeridae include the single genus Hemimerus, which contains only two species of curious wingless insects with long, jointed cerci, found among the hair of certain West African rodents.
The other family is that of the Forficulidae or earwigs (q.v.), all of which have the cerci modified as a forceps, while wings of thecharacteristic form described above are present in many of the species.
The cerci are nearly always joined, and a typical insectan ovipositor with its three pairs of processes is present in connexion with the vagina of the female.
The prothorax is short and the mesothorax very long, the three pairs of legs closely similar, the wings often highly modified or absent, and the cerci short and unjointed.
The bristle tails have an abdomen of eleven segments, the tenth usually carrying a pair of long many-jointed tail-feelers (cerci, fig.
In the Machilidae and Lepismidae (these two families are known as the Ectotrophi) the maxillae are like those of typical biting insects, and there is a median tail-bristle in addition to the paired cerci; while in the Campodeidae and Japygidae (which form the group Entotrophi) the jaws are apparently sunk in the head, through a deep inpushing at the mouth, and there is no median tail-bristle.
The cerci in Japyx are not, as usual, jointed feelers, but strong, curved appendages forming a forceps as in earwigs.