48), Cephalopoda parous gland.
Lankester as a branch of the Cephalopoda, chiefly on account of the protrusible suckerbearing processes at the anterior end of Pneumonoderma.
The demonstration which it affords of the extreme shortening of the Euthyneurous visceral nerve-loop is most instructive and valuable for comparison with and explanation of the condition of the nervous centres in Cephalopoda, as also of some Opisthobranchia.
' Classes: Cephalopoda, Gasteropoda, Pteropoda, Lamellibranchiata, Brachiopoda, Tunicata.
As in Cephalopoda (and possibly other Mollusca) water can be introduced through the nephridia into this space.
His brother Guido Sandberger (1821-1869) was an authority on fossil cephalopoda, and together they published Die Versteinerungen des rheinischen Schichtensystems in Nassau (1850-1856).
L * An independent anatomical investigation of the Mollusca had been carried on by the remarkable Neapolitan naturalist Poli (1791), whose researches 2 were not published until after his death (1817), and were followed by the beautiful works of another Neapolitan zoologist, the illustrious Delle Chiaje.3 The embranchement or sub-kingdom Mollusca, as defined by Cuvier, included the following classes of shellfish: (1) the cuttles or poulps, under the name Cephalopoda; (2) the snails, whelks and slugs, both terrestrial and marine, under the name Gastropoda; (3) the sea-butterflies or winged-snails, under the name Pteropoda; (4) the clams, mussels and oysters, under the name Acephala; (5) the lamp-shells, under the name Brachiopoda; (6) the seasquirts or ascidians, under the name Nuda; and (7) the barnacles and sea-acorns, under the name Cirrhopoda.
As thus purified by successive advances of embryological research, the Mollusca were reduced to the Cuvierian classes of Cephalopoda, Pteropoda, Gastropoda and Acephala.
" Mollusca "; 1883) was as follows: Of the four Cuvierian classes mentioned above, the Pteropoda were united with the Cephalopoda, on account of the apparent similarity of the cephalic tentacles in some of the former to the arms of the latter.
On the other hand, Boas and Pelseneer have shown that the Pteropoda have nothing to do with the Cephalopoda, but are Gastropoda modified for a pelagic life; they are therefore now united with the Gastropoda.
The Cephalopoda, however, do not harmonize so well with this view.
The development of the Cephalopoda affords at present no better evidence that the metamerism is secondary.
The chief types of Mollusca were already differentiated at the beginning of the geological record, and the metamerism which occurs in the Cephalopoda has been evolved within the limits of that class.
The branchial current is maintained by the cilia which cover the surface of the ctenidia, except in Cephalopoda, in which cilia are absent and the current is due to muscular action.
The Cephalopoda can be derived without much difficulty from the schematic Mollusc, if we assume that some metameric repetition of organs has occurred, as explained above in reference to the coelom.
It has been discovered in seaweed; in the blood of certain Cephalopoda and Ascidia as haemocyanin, a substance resembling the ferruginous haemoglobin, and of a species of Limulus; in straw, hay, eggs, cheese, meat, and other food-stuffs; in the liver and kidneys, and, in traces, in the blood of man and other animals (as an entirely adventitious constituent, however); it has also been shown by A.