We centralized all the ovens from the town into one area.
The main chamber had been transformed into a centralized location for rallying warriors, supplies, and war planning.
After serving in the army, the Archduke Rainer was in 1857 placed at the head of the permanent Imperial Council organized in 1851, which stood immediately under the Emperor and had among its functions the preparation of laws, and his experience in this office convinced him that the transition to a constitutional form of government on a liberal and centralized basis was necessary.
The tanning, currying and finishing of leather, an industry largely dependent on the plentiful supply of oak and hemlock bark for tanning, is centralized in the northern and eastern parts of the state, near the forests.
The Klan was twice reorganized, in 1867 and in 1868, each time being more centralized; in 1869 the central organization was disbanded and the order then gradually declined.
Closely connected with the manufacture of lumber is the making of paper and wood pulp, centralized at Bellows Falls, with waterpower on the Connecticut river and with the raw materials near; the product was valued in 1905 at $3,831,448.
In the same city in which the administrative functions of the body politic are centralized there stifi exists the court of the spiritual potentate which in 1879 consisted of 1821 persons.
In this respect a country is either centralized, like the United Kingdom or France, 1 For the history of territorial changes in Europe, see Freeman, Historical Geography of Europe, edited by Bury (Oxford), 190; and for the official definition of existing boundaries, see Hertslet, The Map of Europe by Treaty (4 vols., London, 1875, 1891); The Map of Africa by Treaty (3 vols., London, 1896).
Whilst Russia, Austria, Prussia and France were becoming powerful monarchies with centralized administration, Poland had remained a weak feudal republic with an elected king chosen under foreign influence and fettered by constitutional restrictions.
It would be practically impossible for a line thus used by different carriers to be operated either with safety, or with economy, or with the advantage to the public which a centralized management affords.
In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.
In such a case, the best retort was to return in all haste in order to put more energy into the huge centralized organism which the emperor alone could work.
The surrender of the capital, where he had centralized all the governing powers, was a grave disaster.
The number of members of the school-board was in 1905 reduced from twenty-four to five, elected by the city at large, or serving for one, two or three years; at the same time power was centralized in the hands of the superintendent of schools.
Alexander availed himself of the defeat of the French to break the power of the Orsini, following the general tendency of all the princes of the day to crush the great feudatories and establish a centralized despotism.
A comparatively low cost of labour, the fact that labour is not, as in the days of slavery, that of unintelligent blacks but of intelligent free labourers, the centralized organization and modern methods that prevail on the plantations, the remarkable fertility of the soil (which yields 5 or 6 crops on good soil and with good management, without replanting), and the proximity of the United States, in whose markets Cuba disposes of almost all her crop, have long enabled her to distance her smaller West Indian rivals and to compete with the bounty-fed beet.
There was besides a provincial commission of five lawyers named by the governor-general from the members of the deputation, who settled election questions, and questions of eligibility in this body, gave advice as to laws, acted for the deputation when it was not sitting, and in general facilitated centralized control of the administrative system.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
Janissaries and the suppression of the quasi-indepen dent power of the derebeys had removed the worst disturbing elements; the government had been centralized; a series of enactments had endeavoured to secure economy in the administration, to curb the abuses of official power, and ensure the impartiality of justice; and the sultan had even expressed his personal belief in the principle of the equality of all, Mussulman and non-Mussulman, before the law.
Was the every direction; the finances and the army were reorganized, military instructors being procured from Europe; the administration was gradually centralized, and good relations were cultivated with the powers, the only serious international controversy arising in1848-1849over the refusal.
The whole machinery of government was centralized at the Hague, and Dutchmen filled nearly all the principal posts.
Thus, at the very time when the modernization of the means of national defence had become the first principle, in every other part of Europe, of the strongly centralized monarchies which were rising on the ruins of feudalism, the Hungarian magnates deliberately plunged their country back into the chaos of medievalism.
The power of the collective episcopate to maintain Catholic unity was disproved long before it was overshadowed by the centralized authority of Rome; before the Reformation, its last efforts to assert its supremacy in the Western Church, at the councils of Basel and Constance, had broken down; and the religious revolution of the 16th century left it largely discredited and exposed to a double attack, by the papal monarchy on the one hand and the democratic Presbyterian model on the other.
In 1864 he divided Venezuela into twenty states and formed them into a Federal republic. The twenty parties whose struggles had caused so much strife and bloodshed were the Unionists, who desired a centralized government, and the Federalists, who preferred a federation of semiautonomous provinces.
He followed the policy of his predecessors in enforcing the royal authority over the nobles, but the machinery of a centralized government strong enough to hold nobility in check increased the royal expenditure, to meet which Charles had recourse to doubtful financial expedients.
But it was found that the Government was still too highly centralized and, in 1914, the various divisions were grouped into four provinces over each of which a vice-governorgeneral presided, aided by a consultative council on which non-official Europeans had seats.
In Naples he fomented a conspiracy among the feudal lords, who were discontented with the centralized government established under the auspices of Frederick's chancellor, Piero della Vigna.
Peru is a centralized republic, whose supreme law is the constitution of 1860.
Here it will suffice to say that the most distinctive features of the Cluny system were (1) a notable increase and prolongation of the church services, which came to take up the greater part of the working day; (2) a strongly centralized government, whereby the houses of the order in their hundreds were strictly subject to the abbot of Cluny.
Justina at Padua (1421), afterwards called the Cassinese, departed altogether from the old lines, setting up a highly centralized government, after the model of the Italian republics, whereby the autonomy of the monasteries was destroyed, and they were subjected to the authority of a central governing board.
While its principle of congregational autonomy has been gaining ground in the more centralized systems, Another disability, acutely felt by all Nonconformists, created by the act of 1662, viz.
To afford a home for the centralized activities of the Union, the Memorial Hall, Farringdon Street, London, was built on the site of the Fleet prison - soil consecrated by sacrifice for conscience under Elizabeth - and opened in 1875.
He had a well wrought-out belief in centralized authority in government and a passionate hatred of political and commercial corruption.
He not only hated corruption per se, but he clearly saw that as efficiency has a greater power for good, so corruption has a greater power for evil in a strongly centralized government.
The governorship of the pashalik was long hereditary in the originally Christian family of the `Abd-al-Jalil, until the Porte, during the course of the 19th century, succeeded after a long and severe contest in establishing a more centralized system of government.
Both the higher and the provincial administrations were thoroughly reformed with the view of making them more centralized and efficient; and the positions and duties of the various magistrates, who now also received fixed salaries, were for the first time exactly defined.
On the 11th of February 1477 she was compelled to sign a charter of rights, known as "the Great Privilege," by which the provinces and towns of the Netherlands recovered all the local and communal rights which had been abolished by the arbitrary decrees of the dukes of Burgundy in their efforts to create in the Low Countries a centralized state.
The Latin Church, which, by combining the tradition of the Roman centralized organization with a great elasticity in practice and in the interpretation of doctrine, had hitherto been the moulding force of civilization in the West, is henceforth more or less in antagonism to that civilization, which advances in all its branches - in science, in literature, in art - to a greater or less degree outside of and in spite of her, until in its ultimate and most characteristic developments it falls under the formal condemnation of the pope, formulated in the famous Syllabus of 1864.
This was owing partly to the evils of an oligarchic government; partly to the weakness resulting from the natural attraction of the Orthodox-Greek element in Lithu ania towards Muscovy, especially after the fall of Constantinople, but chiefly to the administrative superiority of the highly centralized Muscovite government.
A strongly centralized government had ever been Poland's greatest need, and Casimir the Great had striven successfully against all centrifugal tendencies.
There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.
During the 18th century Hartford enjoyed a large and lucrative commerce, but the railway development of the 19th century centralized commerce in New York and Boston, and consequently the principal source of the city's wealth has come to be manufacturing and insurance.
Practically it is a Federal Republic with centralized executive powers.
But after 1884 under the rule of Diaz, the Federal system continued in name, but it concealed in fact, with great benefit to the nation, a highly centralized administration, very intelligent, and on the whole both popular and successful - a modern form of rational despotism.
Was in captivity at Ham he dreamed of a Central America civilized and opened up to modern enterprise by a transoceanic canal: and the clerical refugees in Paris, among them Labastida, archbishop of Mexico, easily influenced the Empress Eugenie, herself a Spaniard, to interest her husband in the cause of centralized monarchy and the church: it is said that even in 1859 they had thoughts of setting up the Archduke Maximilian as ruler of Mexico.
Under federal and democratic forms, Diaz exercised a strictly centralized and personal rule.
It was in substance a compromise effected between those who wished for a centralized government and those who desired to leave very wide powers to the component states; and many subsequent difficulties arose from the omission to settle certain, points, and from the somewhat vague language in which other points were referred to.
This consists in governing by the aid of the superiority of a centralized organization to the unorganized masses of the people, and the superiority of military power, arising from the fact that the armed force of the Government is opposed to a people who are defenseless or tired of the armed struggle.
The " Young Turkish " government has problems to face which will be equally difficult, if it insists on endeavouring to institute centralized government in Turkey on the French model.
Customs tariffs and the monetary unions, however, are centralized at Brussels, France - Sweden and Norway, July 9, 1904.
The nervous system, though centralized at one end of the body, contains diffused nerve-cells in the course of its tracts, which are disposed in two or more longitudinal bundles interconnected by transverse bands.
Nothing could have been more removed from a centralized administration than the condition in which matters stood with regard to this point.
The supplementary Organic Articles of April 1802, however, centralized the administration of the Church in the hands of the First Consul; and some of these one-sided regulations were considered by Rome to be minute and oppressive; nevertheless, the Napoleonic arrangements remained in force, with but brief exceptions, till the year 1905.
All these changes tended to consolidating the centralized authority of the papacy.
He abolished all privileges which were not secured by charter and imposed a more rigidly centralized scheme of government in which the activities of the provincial diet were restricted to some judicial and financial functions, and their freedom in matters of foreign policy was withdrawn altogether.
The annexation by Frederick was followed by a complete reorganization ' in which the obsolete powers of the local dynasts were abolished and Silesia became a mere province of the highly centralized Prussian state.
- Up to the beginning of the 10th century we do not meet in the West such a thing as an " order " - an organized corporate body composed of several houses, diffused through various lands, with centralized government and objects and methods of its own.
The Cistercians were an organized, centralized order in the full sense of the word.
This is a curious anticipation of the highly organized and centralized forms of government in religious orders, not met with again till Cluny, Citeaux, and the Mendicant orders in the later middle ages.
The history of the decay of state rights makes it seem doubtful if the federal form of government is a permanent one, or is only a transient form between independent state governments or loose confederacies and a centralized national government.
The Prussian army ~.ad attained an unprecedented excellence of organization and discipline; the Prussian people, in spite of the parliamentary deadlock, were loyal and united; while in Austria army and state were alike disorganized by nationalist discontent and the breakdown of the centralized system.
The smaller county model schools have, since 1906-1907, been consolidated and centralized in the larger towns.
Of the two chief cities, Cleveland (under a special act providing for the government of Columbus and Toledo, also) in1892-1902was governed under the federal plan, which centralized power in the hands of the mayor; in Cincinnati there was an almost hopeless diffusion of responsibility among the council and various executive boards.