But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
Even bread-winners are required to serve, the state pensioning their dependants (75 centimes per diem, up to 10% of the strength) during their period of service.
Wages have risen from 22~6 centimes per hour (on an average) to 26.3 centimes, but not in all industries.
Land is not so heavily burdened by the government quota as by the additional centimes imposed by the provincial and communal authorities.
Currency.The lira (plural lire) of 100 centesimi (centimes) is equal in value to the French franc. The total coinage (exclusive of Eritrean currency) from the 1st of January 1862 to the end of 1907 was 1,104,667,116 lire (exclusive of recoinage), divided as follows: gold, 427,516,970 lire; silver, 570,097,025 lire; nickel, 23,417,000 lire; bronze, 83,636,121 lire.
The values of the coinage are pieces of 5 and 10 centimes in bronze, of 50 centimes, 1 franc and 2 francs in silver, of 10 francs and 20 francs in gold.
Nickel money is for 5, Io and 20 centimes, and the copper coinage has been withdrawn from circulation.
In addition, we have to notice certain taxes which up to 1910 - II were levied by the British government and distributed to the local authorities, just as in France the government levies certain direct taxes, or centimes additionnelles, added to its own direct taxes for the benefit of the local authorities.
After the Crimean War, a bimetallic currency was adopted, with the le g (franc) of loo bani (centimes) as the unit of value.
The successive issues of assignats, and the Financial multiplication of counterfeits made abroad, had so policy depreciated this paper money that an assignat of joo otflic francs was in February 1796 worth only 30 centimes; 01).
Literature: Louis Brehier, La Querelle des images, and Les Origines du crucifix (Paris, 1904); Librairie Blond, in French, each volume 60 centimes (brief but admirable); Karl Schwartzlose, Der Bilderstreit (Gotha, 1890); Karl Schenk, "The Emperor Leo III.," in Byzant.