These were primarily (and compulsorily) censored by military censors on the field, but they all came through the Press Bureau, which occasionally exercised a super-censorship. The methods adopted caused constant grumbling and discontent.
The tendency towards a stricter censorship was shown by a proposal which was carried through the Prussian parliament for controlling the instruction given at the universities by the Privatdozenten.
It remains to deal with the censorship of messages from authorized British correspondents on the several fronts.
After the failure of Contarini's attempt at reconciliation with the Protestants (1541) the papacy committed itself to the reaction advocated by Caraffa; the Inquisition and censorship were set up (1542, 1 543), and the extermination of heresy in Italy undertaken with vigour.
There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.
With both he took all imaginable pains to avoid offending the censorship; for Voltaire had, more than any other man who ever lived, the ability and the willingness to stoop to conquer.
He was always chosen by the emperor and usually from men who had held the consulship; his office was regarded, like the censorship under the republic, as the crowning honour of a long political career.
Whenever opinions did happen to be expressed which could be construed as criticism of Austria or Germany the offenders were speedily punished, and it was not long before the political leaders of the Czechs and Slovaks found themselves in confinement, some of them under sentence of death, while the Czech and Slovak press was subjected to a rigorous censorship and many of its organs prohibited from appearing.
Gerlach (1872), dealing especially with the censorship of Claudius.
1 Subsequent pontiffs continued to exhort the episcopate and the whole body of the faithful to be on their guard against heretical writings, whether old or new; and one of the functions of the Inquisition when it was established was to exercise a rigid censorship over books put in circulation.
7 the Press Bureau (the outward and visible sign of the censorship) was established by Lord Kitchener, acting in conjunction with Mr. Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty.
This change, however, only applied to censorship by the Foreign Office, and messages were still liable to censorship from the point of view of other departments (Admiralty, War Office, Home Office or Treasury, for instance) consulted by the Press Bureau - a system which continued until 1919.
A rigid censorship was exercised concerning the publication of information as to the production of munitions, measures of defence, bombardments, air raids, arrests, trials and executions of spies, etc.
He then passed the laws on the press, suppressing the censorship. By reorganization of the finances, the protection of industry and the carrying out of great public works, France regained its economic prosperity, and the ministry became popular.
He devoted his leisure to the improvement of his economic treatise, which had for some time been out of print, but which the censorship did not permit him to republish; and in 1814 he availed himself (to use his own words) of the sort of liberty arising from the entrance of the allied powers into France to bring out a second edition of the work, dedicated to the emperor Alexander, who had professed himself his pupil.
This ignorance of the very nature of science leads to under-estimation of the elemental force which science possesses; for only thus can we explain the pertinacity with which Ultramontanism, even at the present day, strives to subject her work to its own censorship and control.
The World War brought about various forms of restriction of publicity in the shape of a censorship, which provides a new chapter in the history of the Press Laws.
Cable and Postal Censorship. - In addition to the Press Bureau, censorships of incoming and outgoing cables, letters and parcels, were established by the War Office at the commencement of the war with the three-fold object of preventing information of military value from reaching the enemy, of acquiring similar information for British purposes and of checking the dissemination of information likely to be useful to the enemy or prejudicial to the Allies.
The difficulties were accentuated by the lack of association between the correspondents and the real head of the censorship at G.H.Q.
The navy had its own censorship department at the Admiralty, under the superintendence of Sir Douglas Brownrigg.
Taxation was somewhat reduced, the censorship was made less severe, political amnesties were granted, humaner officials were appointed and the Congregations (a sort of shadowy consultative assembly) were revived.
In 1920 he vetoed a bill calling for censorship of moving pictures and likewise a bill to permit the sale of " 2.7 5 per cent " beer.
Various other reforms, notably the abolition of the spy system and the censorship, were announced soon afterwards.
The submission to censorship which this entailed was sufficiently inconsistent and she wrote to the emperor one of the unfortunate letters, at once undignified and provoking, of which she had the secret.
After the abolition of the police-censorship in 1848 he published a new edition, completed in 1876, restoring the original form of the work.
Press censorship was of course very rigid throughout the Dual Monarchy, but many Yugoslav newspapers were suppressed altogether.
Although converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, Holstenius showed his liberal-mindedness by strenuously opposing the strict censorship exercised by the Congregation of the Index.
Chenier attacked the censorship in three pamphlets, and the commotion aroused by the controversy raised keen interest in the piece.
On the 18th of December a new censorship law was issued, to secure the orthodoxy of all published books; and finally, in 1791, a sort of Protestant Inquisition was established at Berlin (Immediat-Examinationscommission) to watch over all ecclesiastical and scholastic appointments.
But the paper, under the censorship of the Austrian officials, ran for a year only, and the society itself was broken up by the government.
The criticism of Malherbe, followed by the establishment of the Academy, the minute grammatical censures of Claude Favre Vaugelas, and the severe literary censorship of Boileau, turned French in less than three-quarters of a century from one of the freest languages in Europe to one of the most restricted.
It will be seen that the Press Bureau had no power to insist upon the submission of matter for censorship. The responsibility rested with the editor, who could publish what he thought fit, subject to complying with the Defence of the Realm Regulations.
The cable censorship extended throughout the Empire, and the number of persons employed in the United Kingdom, exclusive of those in the Press Bureau, was about 200.
In the early part of the war a great outcry was made by the British (and also the American) newspapers concerning the working of the Press cable censorship in London.
From that date onwards the stringency of the censorship was gradually relaxed, and the army eventually set up an organization to supply correspondents with information, so that in dealing with the German advance in the spring of 1918 they were able to write with freedom.
The theory of the physiocrats now found powerful advocates in Denmark; and after 1755, when the press censorship was abolished so far as regarded political economy and agriculture, a thorough discussion of the whole agrarian question became possible.
38-40) All books concerned with the religious sciences and with ethics are submitted to preliminary censorship, and in, addition to this ecclesiastics have to obtain a personal authorization for all their books and for the acceptance of the editorship of a periodical (Nos.
He was a man of enlightenment, did much to encourage agriculture, industries and the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, founded the Academy of Sciences at Munich, and abolished the Jesuit censorship of the press.
The Jesuits now gained the upper hand; one by one the liberal provisions of the constitution were modified or annulled; the Protestants were harried and oppressed; and a rigorous censorship forbade any free discussion of internal politics.
During the World War he issued, in 1915, an order barring unneutral envelopes and cards from the mails, and after America became a belligerent he instituted a censorship designed to suppress treasonable and seditious newspapers.
The political mainstay of the papacy, had never abandoned the broad lines of ecclesiastical policy laid down by Joseph II.; but the young Francis Joseph, seeking the aid of Rome in curbing heterogeneous nationalities, in 1855 negotiated a concordat whose paragraphs regarding the censorship, education and marriage were far-reaching.
In carrying out the regime of Rampolla, which was, in every respect, a bad imitation of that of Antonelli, the Vatican left no stone unturned in its attempt to coerce the conscience of the French royalists; it did not even stop at dishonour, as was evidenced by the case of the unhappy Mgr d'Hulst, who, in order to evade the censorship of his pamphlet on Old Testament criticism, had to abandon both his king and his principles, only to die in exile of a broken heart.