5 See Machyn's Diary (Camden Soc. 42; London, 1848), p. 208, for St Bartholomew's day, 1559: "All the roods, and Maries and Johns, and many other of the church goods, both copes, crosses, censers, altar cloths, rood cloths, books, banners,.
The oldest Ordo Romanus, which perhaps takes us back to within a century of Gregory the Great, enjoins that in pontifical masses a subdeacon, with a golden censer, shall go before the bishop as he leaves the secretarium for the choir, and two, with censers, before the deacon gospeller as he proceeds with the gospel to the ambo.
149-153) in their visitations inquired whether censers had been furnished for use.
The Greek and Roman censers (9vjuariiptov and turibulum or thuribulum) are of quite different shape.
The censers or thuribles in Christian usage have been specially adapted to be swung, though there are in existence many early specimens of heavy weight and made of gold or silver which were obviously not meant to be used in this way and have handles and not chains.
As to the former, the Japanese method does not differ from that seen in the beautiful iron censers and vases inlaid with gold which the Chinese produced from the Snen-tl era (1426-1436).
They no longer devote themselves to the manufacture of sword ornaments, but work rather at vases, censers, statuettes, plaques, boxes and other objects of a serviceable or ornamental nature.
Up to that time there had been little demand for enamels of large dimensions, but when the foreign market called for vases, censers, plaques and such things, no difficulty was found in supplying them.
When the decision was known the populace, who had been eagerly waiting from early morning till night to hear the result, accompanied the members with torches and censers to their lodgings, and there was a general illumination of the city.
Incense was constantly used, especially the copalli (copal) well known to us for varnish; little terra-cotta censers are among the commonest of Mexican antiquities.
It is to be noticed that in both P 1 and 1 32 incense is burned in pans or censers, so that even the author of P 2 knew nothing about an altar of incense.
The process was known at an early period, and was employed for the purpose of subsidiary decoration from the close of the 16th century, but not until the 19th century did Japanese experts begin to manufacture the objects known in Europe as enamels; that is to say, vases, plaques, censers, bowls, and so forth, having their surface covered with vitrified pastes applied either in the chain plev or the cloisonn style.
Terra cotta censers have also been found of a similar shape.