The domus de gianas, on the other hand, resemble closely the rock tombs of the prehistoric cemeteries of Sicily.
The Maoris buried their dead, the cemeteries being ornamented with carved posts.
There are Saxon cemeteries at Stapenhill and Foremark Hall.
Roman cemeteries existed near the rues Bab-el-Oued and Bab Azoun.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria(London,1883),ii.290 seq.; L.
Large cemeteries have been excavated, which show three different periods from the 8th century B.C. down to the Roman domination.
In Turkish cemeteries the cypress "Dark tree, still sad when others' grief is fled, The only constant mourner o'er the dead" is the most striking feature, the rule being to plant one for each interment.
The earliest churches were built with cemeteries for the dead; and thus we find the nucleus of the city of Venice, little isolated groups of dwellings each on its separate islet, scattered, as Cassiodorus 1 says, like sea-birds' nests over the face of the waters.
Three cemeteries remain intact - King's chapel burying ground, with the graves of John Winthrop and John Cotton; the Old Granary burial ground in the heart of the city, where Samuel Sewall, the parents of Franklin, John Hancock, James Otis and Samuel Adams are buried; and Copp's Hill burial ground, containing the tombs of the Mathers.
Excavations of recent years have, however, led to the discovery of some 600 ancient Italic (Ligurian?) huts, and of cemeteries of the same and the succeeding (Umbrian) periods (800-600?
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883), i.
The relics having been removed, the visits of pilgrims naturally ceased, and by degrees the very existence of those wonderful subterranean cemeteries was forgotten.
The graves, or loculi, as they are commonly designated, were, in the Christian cemeteries, with only a few exceptions (Padre Marchi produces some from the cemetery of St Ciriaca, Monium.
In the pagan cemeteries, on the other hand, the sepulchral recess as a rule entered the rock like an oven at right angles to the corridor, the body being introduced endways.
They chiefly occur in the earlier cemeteries, and the costliness of their construction confined their use to the wealthiest classes - e.g.
The idea of general intercommunication is negatived by the fact that the chief cemeteries are separated by low ground or valleys, where any subterranean galleries would be at once filled with water.
We may then completely dismiss the notion of there being any studied secrecy in connexion with the early Christian cemeteries, and proceed to inquire into the mode of their formation.
When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands, communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which, " even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure, form an immense work."' This could only be executed by a large and powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police regulations, " a living witness of its immense development corresponding to the importance of the capital."
But although, as we have said, in ordinary times there was no necessity for secrecy, yet when the peace of the Church was broken by the fierce and often protracted persecutions of the heathen emperors, it became essential to adopt precautions to conceal the entrance to the cemeteries, which became the temporary hiding-places of the Christian fugitives, and to baffle the search of their pursuers.
Subterranean cemeteries of the general character of those described are very frequent in all southern and eastern countries.
(From Dennis.) occasionally forming " a spacious square or piazza surrounded by tombs instead of houses " (Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, ii.
In 1902, in that part of the Via Ardeatina which passes between the cemeteries of Calixtus and Domitilla, was discovered a crypt with frescoes and the sanctuary of a martyr: it is thought that this, rather than a neighbouring crypt brought to light in 1847, may prove to be the sepulchral crypt of SS.
Caruana, Ancient Pagan Tombs and Christian Cemeteries in the Islands of Malta (Malta, 1898), and A.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883, i.
One conspicuous feature of the Bosnian land-system is the Moslem Vakuf, or ecclesiastical property, consisting of estates dedicated to such charitable purposes as poor-relief, and the endowment of mosques, schools, hospitals, cemeteries and baths.
Not far off, similar relics were found at Sobunar, Zlatiste and Debelobrdo; iron and bronze ornaments, vessels and weapons, often of elaborate design, occur in the huts and cemeteries of Glasinac, and in the cemetery of Jezerine, where they are associated with objects in silver, tin, amber, glass, &c. Among the numerous finds made in other districts may be mentioned the discovery, at Vrankamer, near Bihac, of 98 African coins, the oldest of which dates from 300 B.C. Many vestiges of Roman rule survive, such as roads, mines, ruins, tombs, coins, frescoes and inscriptions.
Of the several cemeteries, Lake View (about 300 acres), on an elevated site on the E.
The benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
There is a new general hospital at Eppendorf, outside the town on the north, built on the pavilion principle, and one of the finest structures of the kind in Europe; and at Ohlsdorf, in the same direction, a crematorium was built in 1891 in conjunction with the town cemeteries (370 acres).
Frankish arms and armour have been found in the cemeteries which abound throughout northern France, the warriors being buried fully armed.
Of the houses, most of which stood on the central hill, no traces remain; but there are ruins of three churches - the Great Basilica and the Basilica Alexander on the western hill, and the Basilica of St Salsa on the eastern hill - two cemeteries, the baths, theatre, amphitheatre and nymphaeum.
Vast cemeteries of animals which belonged to the revered species have been discovered; more especially may be mentioned that of the cats at Bubastis, the remains of which, charred by some great fire, until recently filled numberless chambers of crude brick in the ruins at Zagazig.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria (London, 1883), ii.
Juarez was recognized by the United States, and allowed to draw supplies of arms and volunteers thence; and in July 1859 he published laws suppressing the religious orders, nationalizing ecclesiastical property (of the estimated value of $45,000,000), establishing civil marriage and registration, transferring the cemeteries to civil control, and, in short, disestablishing the church.
The principal cemeteries are Mount Pleasant, overlooking the Passaic in the northern part of the city, and Fairmount in the western part; about 1894 the remains of the early settlers were removed from the Old 1 The river channel before improvement had a navigable depth of 7 ft.
Extensive Sicel cemeteries have been explored to the north of the town (Not.
Of the several cemeteries, that of Forest Home, south-west of the city, is the largest and most beautiful.
In Mosul, as in Bagdad, only part of the space within the walls is covered with buildings and the rest is occupied by cemeteries; even the solid limestone walls of the ancient town are half in ruins, being serviceable only in the direction of the river, where they check inundations.
The archaeologist recovers his specimens from waste places, cave deposits, abandoned villages, caches, shell-heaps, refuse-heaps, enclosures, mounds, hut rings, earthworks, garden beds, quarriesï¿½ and workshops, petroglyphs, trails, graves and cemeteries, cliff and cavate dwellings, ancient pueblos, ruined stone dwellings, forts and temples, canals or reservoirs.
Dennis, Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, i.
Among the later tombs bilingual inscriptions are by no means rare, and both Etruscan and Latin inscriptions are often found in the same cemeteries, showing that the use of the Etruscan language only died out gradually.
Of Chiusi - at Cetona, Sarteano, Chianciano and MontepulcianoEtruscan cemeteries have been discovered; the objects from them formed, in the latter half of the 19th century, interesting local collections described by Dennis, which have since mostly passed to larger museums or been dispersed.