Ice has its grain as well as wood, and when a cake begins to rot or "comb," that is, assume the appearance of honeycomb, whatever may be its position, the air cells are at right angles with what was the water surface.
These consist of enormous cells with nuclei so large as to be in some cases just visible to the naked eye.
In every cell of your body except your red blood cells exists a copy of your DNA.
Eventually he was able to prove that the biological doctrine of omnis cellula ecellula applies to pathological processes as well as to those of normal growth, and in his famous book on Cellular-pathologic, published at Berlin in 1858, he established what Lord Lister described as the "true and fertile doctrine that every morbid structure consists of cells which have been derived from pre-existing cells as a progeny."
Those of any other burrowing mammal, the retina being reduced to a mass of simple cells, and the cornea and sclerotic ("white") to a pearshaped fibrous capsule enclosing a ball of pigment.
The body-cavity is largely occupied by processes from the large muscle cells of the skin.
These cells are disposed in pairs, though the members of each pair are not always at the same level.
The Daniell type consists of a teak trough divided into five cells by slate partitions coated with marine glue.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
The beginning of definite knowledge on the phenomenon of fermentation may be dated from the time of Antony Leeuwenhoek, who in 1680 designed a microscope sufficiently powerful to render yeast cells and bacteria visible; and a description of these organisms, accompanied by diagrams, was sent to the Royal Society of London.
He agreed with Pasteur that the presence of living cells is essential to the transformation of sugar into alcohol, but dissented from the view that the process occurs within the cell.
The preference exhibited by yeast cells for sugar molecules is shared by mould fungi and soluble enzymes in their fermentative actions.
Hansen counted the number of yeast cells suspended in a drop of liquid diluted with sterilized water.
The flasks were then well shaken, and the yeast cell or cells settled to the bottom, and gave rise to a separate yeast speck.
Hansen pointed out that this was by no means the case, for it is more difficult to separate the cells from each other in the gelatin than in the liquid.
To effect this some of the nutrient gelatin containing yeast cells is placed on the under-surface of the cover-glass of the moist chamber.
Those cells are accurately marked, the position of which is such that the colonies, to which they give rise, can grow to their full size without coming into contact with other colonies.
Endospore formation, the conditions for which are as follows: (1) suitable temperature, (2) presence of air, (3) presence of moisture, (4) young and vigorous cells, (5) a food supply in the case of one species at least is necessary, and is in no case prejudicial.
Hansen showed that the microscopic appearance of film cells of the same species of Saccharomycetes varies according to the temperature of growth; the limiting temperatures of film formation, as well as the time of its appearance for the different species, also vary.
This observation led him to further work, and he succeeded in showing that in vascular organs the presence of cells in inflammatory exudates is not the result of exudation but of multiplication of pre-existing cells.
Broad, and are divided interiorly by a spongy substance into three to five cells, each of which contains a large chestnut-like seed.
There were, however, but few prisons in France adapted for the cellular system, and the process of reconstruction has been slow, In 1898 the old Paris prisons of Grande-Roquette, Saint-Plagie and Mazas were demolished, and to replace them a large prison with 1500 cells was erected at Fresnes-ls-Rungis.
The number of cells is not large (some 2 to 8), and as a rule they lie along the lateral lines.
Similarly the giant cells are produced at their periphery into a number of branching processes which bear similar end-organs on their surface and in some cases terminate in them.
The spermatozoa differ from those of other animals in having the form of cells which sometimes perform amoeboid movements.
The force of the set of accumu- Accumu- lator cells provided is such as to give sufficient power lators.
A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
A battery with a sufficient number of cells is connected to these two electrodes so as to pass a current through the mercury vapour, negative electricity proceeding from the mercury cathode to the iron anode.
It is largely used for the purpose of making standard electric cells, such for example as the Weston cell.
Then come the glandular surface (C), which is formed of smooth polished epidermis with numerous glands that secrete the fluid contents of the pitcher, and finally the detentive surface (D), of which the cells are produced into long and strong bristles which point A FIG.
Notwithstanding the construction of new prisons and the transformation of old ones, the number of cells for solitary confinement is still insufficient for a complete application of the penal system established by the code of 1890, and the moral effect of the association of the prisoners is not good, though the system of solitary confinement as practised in Italy is little better.
(2) Sensory cells, which may be fairly numerous in places, especially on the tentacles, but which occur always scattered and isolated, never aggregated to form sense-organs as in the medusa.
Belonging primarily to the epithelial layer, the muscular cells may become secondarily sub-epithelial.
The sub-epithelial layer consists primarily of the so-called inter stitial cells, lodged between the narrowed basal portions of the epithelial cells.
From them are developed two distinct types of histological elements; the genital cells and the cnidoblasts or mothercells of the nematocysts.
- Portion;of the body-wall of Hydra, showing ectoderm cells above, separated by " structureless lamella " from three flagellate endoderm cells below.
Schulze.) elements, more especially by nervous (ganglion) cells and musclecells derived from the epithelial layer.
The genital cells are simple wandering cells (archaeocytes), at first.
According to Wulfert  the primitive germ-cells of Gonothyraea can be distinguished soon after the fixation of the planula, appearing amongst the interstitial cells of the ectoderm.
The cnidoblasts are the mother-cells of the nematocysts, each cell producing one nematocyst in its interior.
- Epidermomuscular cells of Hydra.
A third point of dispute is whether the nematocysts ar:e formed in situ, or whether the cnidoblasts migrate with them to the region where they are most needed; the fact that in Hydra, for example, there are no interstitial cells in the tentacles, where nematocysts are very abundant, is certainly in favour of the view that the cnidoblasts migrate on to the tentacles from the body, and that like the genital cells the cnidoblasts are wandering cells.