The drainage of the region under which the caverns lie is mostly underground.
No less remarkable are the Okno, Vodi and Demenyfalva caverns in the county of Lipt6, the Veterani in the Banat and the ice cave at Dobsina in Gomor county.
None of them is of any importance except Cabrera, which is full of caverns, and was formerly used as a place of banishment.
Thus the scenery of a limestone country depends on the solubility and permeability of the rocks, leading to the typical Karst-formations of caverns, swallowholes and underground stream courses, with the contingent phenomena of dry valleys and natural bridges.
In the neighbourhood are the cave of Drach, containing several underground lakes, and the caves of Arta, one of the largest and finest groups of stalactite caverns in western Europe.
A very peculiar feature of Cuba is the abundance of caverns in the limestone deposits that underlie much of the island's surface.
- The numerous caverns deserve a passing notice.
Of the many interesting caverns in Transylvania the most remarkable are the sulphurous Biidos in the county of Haromszek, the Almas to the south of Udvarhely and the brook-traversed rocky caverns of Csetate-Boli, Pestere and Ponor in the southern mountains of Hunyad county.
7), or who had sought refuge in caverns (xiii.
The Mitchelstown stalactite caverns, to m.
This character is represented in rude but graphic drawings of prehistoric age found in caverns in the south of France.
The Little Orme has caverns and abounds in sea birds and rare plants.
Calcium nitrate, Ca(N0,)2.4H20, is a highly deliquescent salt, crystallizing in monoclinic prisms, and occurring in various natural waters, as an efflorescence in limestone caverns, and in the neighbourhood of decaying nitrogenous organic matter.
Those of the great cave bear (Ursus spelaeus), found abundantly in certain caverns of central Europe and Asia, show that it must have exceeded in size the polar bear of the present day.
The cliffs of the Head, however, are pierced with caverns and fringed with rocks of fantastic outline.
Beetles and crickets abound; and now and then a blind crawfish darts through the waters; but as compared with many caverns the fauna and flora are not abundant.
Near at hand are the ruins of Cranii, which afford fine examples of Greek military architecture; and at the west side of the harbour there is a curious stream, flowing from the sea, and employed to drive mills before losing itself in caverns inland.
Remains of extinct peccaries referable to the modern genus occur in the caverns and superficial deposits of South America, but not in the earlier formations.
In the neighbourhood are the Cave of the Winds, the Grand Caverns, charming glens, mountain lakes and picturesque canyons; and the Garden of the Gods, - approached by a narrow gateway between two tremendous masses of red rock 330 ft.
Below the town and in the cliffs facing it the rock is hollowed into caverns accessible only by boat.
In caverns and superficial deposits of South America occur remains of extinct species more or less closely related to modern llamas; but previous to the Upper Pliocene the group is unknown in South America, which it reached from the north.
In the spring two caverns were excavated in the ice at distances of about 5 and 12 m.
There are many caverns and steep ravines, and from the character of the rocks the ascents are rugged and precipitous.
Several stalactitical caverns are also seen, and prehistoric British and Roman relics discovered in and near them are preserved in a small museum.
The two caverns most frequently visited are called respectively Cox's and Gough's; in each, but especially in the first, there is a remarkable collection of fantastic and beautiful stalactitical forms. There are other caverns of greater extent but less beauty, but their extent is not completely explored.
In the limestone regions caverns and natural bridges occur, among which Luray Cavern and the Natural Bridge are well known.
They burrow in the sands of every shore; they throng the weeds between tide-marks; they ascend all streams; they are found in deep wells, in caverns, in lakes; in Arctic waters they swarm in numbers beyond computation; they find lodgings on crabs, on turtles, on weed-grown buoys; they descend into depths of the ocean down to hundreds or thousands of fathoms; they are found in mountain streams as far above sea-level as some of their congeners live below it.
The large tract of land owned by the Luray Caverns Corporations covers all possible modes of entrance.
C. Northcott, president of the Luray Caverns Corporation, on the summit of Cave Hill.
Tests made for several successive years by means of culture media and sterile plates, demonstrated the perfect bacteriologic purity of the air, first drawn into the caverns through myriads of rocky crevices that served as natural filters, then further cleansed by floating over the transparent springs and pools, and finally supplied to the inmates of the sanatorium.
It has a length, together with its ramifications, of over 5 miles, and is formed of two caverns - one known for several centuries, and another discovered by the naturalist Adolf Schmidl in 1856.
In these caverns there are numerous stalactite structures, which, from their curious and fantastic shapes, have received such names as the Image of the Virgin, the Mosaic Altar, &c. The principal parts are the Paradies with the finest stalactites, the Astronomical Tower and the Beinhaus.
It shows few traces of dynamic disturbance, but has been carved, mainly by erosion since the Miocene epoch, into many caverns, of which the Mammoth Cave is the largest.
(1835); Rambles in the Mammoth Cave in 1844, by Alexander Bullitt, with map by Stephen Bishop; guide-books by Wright (1858), Binkerd (1869), Forwood (1875), Proctor (1878), Hovey (1882), &c., and Hovey and Call (1897); Hovey's Celebrated American Caverns (1882, &c.); and The Mammoth Cave and its Inhabitants, by Packard and F.
In habits the guacharo is wholly nocturnal, slumbering by day in deep and dark caverns which it frequents in vast numbers.
The hard, indigestible seed swallowed by the guacharo are found in quantities on the floor and the ledges of the caverns it frequents, where many of them for a time vegetate, the plants thus growing being etiolated from want of light, and, according to travellers, forming a singular feature of the gloomy scene which these places present.
There are remarkable features underground as well as on the surface, the caverns and subterranean streams of Yorkshire and Derbyshire being amongst the deepest that have yet been explored.
The not quite conclusive researches of Tournal and Christol in limestone caverns of the south of France date back to 1828.
About the same time P. C. Schmerling of Liege was exploring the ossiferous caverns of the valley of the Meuse, and satisfied himself that the men whose bones he found beneath the stalagmite floors, together with bones cut and flints shaped by human workmanship, had inhabited this Belgian district at the same time with the cave-bear and several other extinct animals whose bones were imbedded with them (Recherches sur les ossements fossiles decouverts dans les cavernes de la province de Liege (Liege, 1833-1834)).
Wave action is seen in the numerous caverns, and south-east of Portland Bill, the southern extremity of the isle, is a bank called the Shambles, between which and the land there flows a dangerous current called the Race of Portland.
For more full descriptions of Wyandotte Cave and its contents, see Hovey's Celebrated American Caverns, pp. 123-153; Indiana State Geological Reports, by R.
Knox Cave, in Greene county, and several caverns near Ozark, in Christian county, are also of interest.
South of Hannibal), which has a deep pool containing many eyeless fish; and various caverns in Miller, Ozark, Greene and Parry counties.
In the Zwarteberg of the central chain are the Cango Caves, a remarkable series of caverns containing many thousand of stalactites and stalagmites.
There are over 120 separate chambers, the caverns extending nearly a mile in a straight line.
The name of Wye belongs also to two smaller English rivers - (I) a right-bank tributary of the Derbyshire Derwent, rising in the uplands near Buxton, and having part of its early course through one of the caverns characteristic of the district; (2) a left-bank tributary of the Thames, watering the valley of the Chilterns in which lies Wycombe and joining the main river near Bourne End.
Among the other peculiarities of the Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns of Ariege, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus and Adelops.
Remains of the wild cat occur in English caverns; while from those of Ireland (where the wild species has apparently been unknown during the historic period) have been obtained jaws and teeth which it has been suggested are referable to the Egyptian rather than to the European wild cat.
There are several interesting limestone caverns, and Sylvan Lake, in the high mountain district, is an important resort.
Fresh water, rising and falling with the tide, is found in certain large caverns in Lifu, and by sinking to the sea-level a supply may be obtained in any part of the island.
The Mithraic temples of Roman times were artificial grottoes (spelaea) wholly or partially underground, in imitation of the original selcuded mountain caverns of Asia.
The caverns in the sides of the precipice are said to have afforded Wallace and other heroes (or outlaws) refuge in time of trouble, but the old house is most memorable as the home of the poet William Drummond, who here welcomed Ben Jonson; the tree beneath which the two poets sat still stands.
"The rivers pouring out of the caverns at the base of the Lycian and Pisidian ranges of the Taurus come forth from their subterranean courses charged with carbonate of lime, and are continually adding to the Pamphylian plain.
In the vicinity are the troglodyte caverns of Monte Scaglioso, still inhabited by some of the lower classes, and other caves with 13thcentury frescoes.
There is scarcely a county in England in which its remains have not been found in alluvial gravel or in caverns, and numbers of its teeth are dredged in the North Sea.
In Hindu mythology the Maruts, Indra, Agni and Vishnu wage war with the serpent Ahi to deliver the celestial cows or spouses, the waters held captive in the caverns of the clouds.
The rocky heights south and west of the town, whence the building material is largely obtained, are full of natural and artificial caverns, once used as dwellings, cloisters and graves, where are most of the ' Pictures in Burkitt, Early East.
Fossil species of Dolichotis occur in the caverns of Brazil, and also in the superficial deposits of Argentina.