These boats are either plain dug-outs, with or without outriggers, or regularly built by planks tightly laced and well caulked to an excavated keel.
The white and red lead are mixed together to form a putty, and are filled into the socket alternately with layers of well-caulked yarn, starting with yarn and finishing off with the lead mixture.
This consists of a heavy cast iron ring, known as a wedging crib, or curb, also fitted together in segments, which is lodged in a square-edged groove cut for its reception, tightly caulked with moss, and wedged into position.
The joints are packed or caulked with tow, smeared with a mixture of white and red lead.
These vessels were made of planks well fitted and sewn together, the joints being caulked and pitched.'