(4) Caudal, those which are not connected with the pelvis.
Not more than thirteen caudal vertebrae.
The last six or seven caudal vertebrae coalesce into the pygostyle, an upright blade which carries the rectrices.
In all the Neornithes the total number of caudal vertebrae, inclusive of those which coalesce, is reduced to at least 13.
D.l, Dorso-lumbar, s, sacral, c, caudal vertebrae.
- Pelvis and caudal vertebrae of adult Fowl, side view, natural size.
Of course this doubleheaded condition is the more primitive, and as such exists in most nidifugous birds, but in many of these, as well as in many nidicolous birds, either the caudal or the iliac head is absent, and in a very few (Cancroma, Dicholophus, Steatornis and some Cathartes) the whole muscle is absent.
Lastly, towards the caudal region the right and left strands approach and anastomose, eventually coalescing in the mid line.
Caudal vertebrae more than thirteen, without a pygostyle, but with about twelve pairs of rectrices.
The ventral and anal fins are white, tinged with pale red; and the dorsal, pectoral and caudal tipped with black.
F2, f 3, Lateral and caudal sb, Seminal pouch.
Z, Caudal appendage.
Aquatic larvae with caudal leaf-gills or with rectal tracheal system.
The Saururae have the metacarpals well developed and not ancylosed, and the caudal vertebrae are numerous and large, so that.
The caudal fin is crescent-shaped, strengthened at the base by two short ridges on each side.
Vertebrae: cervical, 7; dorsal, 18; lumbar, 5; sacral, 6; caudal about 12.
Vertebrae: cervical, 7; dorsal, 19-20; lumbar, 3; sacral, 4; caudal, about 22.
BURBOT, or EEL-Pout (Lota vulgaris), a fish of the family Gadidae, which differs from the ling in the dorsal and anal fins reaching the caudal, and in the small size of all the teeth.
Ce, Cerebral arteries; sp, supra - spinal or medullary artery; c, caudal artery; 1, lateral anastomotic artery of Limulus.
Opisthosoma without post-anal scierite and posterior caudal elongation: with frequently a pair of small lobate FIG.
(Original drawing by Pocock and Pickard-Cambridge, after Hansen and Sorensen.) caudal support for the many-jointed flagelliform telson, as in the Urotricha.
An, Orifice within which the caudal a, Movable (hinged) sclerite (sosegments are withdrawn.
Of Oviedo, on the river Caudal, a tributary of the Nalon.
Fins without spines; caudal fin, if present, without expanded hypural, perfectly symmetrical, and supported by the neural and haemal spines of the posterior vertebrae, and by basal bones similar to those supporting the dorsal and anal rays.
This type of caudal fin must be regarded as secondary, the Gadidae being, no doubt, derived from fishes in which the homocercal fin of the typical Teleostean had been lost.
The genus Gadus is characterized by having three dorsal and two anal fins, and a truncated or notched caudal fin.
Long) consists of a subcylindrical body and a caudal appendage.
Apart from these characteristics, the most distinctive feature of earwigs is the presence at the end of the abdomen of a pair of pincers which are in reality modified appendages, known as cercopods, and represent the similar limbs of Japyx and the caudal feelers of Campodea and some other insects.
The species of Bungarus, four in number, are extremely common in India, Burma, and Ceylon, and are distinguished by having only one row of undivided sub-caudal shields.
The development of its scutes and spines varies exceedingly, and specimens may be found without any lateral scutes and with short spines, others with only a few scutes and moderately sized spines, and again others which possess a complete row of scutes from the head to the caudal fin, and in which the fin-spines are twice as long and strong as in other varieties.
Macmillan & Co., Ltd.) b, bristle; cs, caudal spine; ph, pharynx; s s', the spines on the two segments of the proboscis; sg, salivary glands; st, stomach.
Round the proboscis and in the two posterior caudal spines.
- Though concealed within the bivalved shellcover, the mouth-parts are nearly as in the Gymnophylla, but the flexing of the caudal part is in contrast, and the biramous second antennae correspond with what is only a larval character in the other phyllopods.
- The body, seldom in any way segmented,, is wholly encased in a bivalved shell, the caudal part strongly inflexed, and almost always ending in a furca.
It was observed that ten of the caudal vertebrae of the latter skeleton bore tooth marks and grooves corresponding exactly with the sharp pointed teeth in the jaw of the carnivorous dinosaur.
The mid-region of the body, composed of jointed segments, is followed by a larger or smaller region consisting of fused segments and termed the pygidium or caudal shield, which in some cases is as large as the head-shield itself, in other cases much smaller.
Under the pygidium or caudal shield the appendages were much shortened, and their main branch consisted of broader and flatter segments than those of the preceding limbs.
The variety most highly prized has an extremely short snout, eyes which almost wholly project beyond the orbit, no dorsal fin, and a very long threeor four-lobed caudal fin (Telescope-fish).
The lower (caudal) part of the furrow-like outgrowth remains hollow and forms the gall bladder.
The gall-bladder (g), when it is present, is always situated on the caudal surface or in the substance of the right central lobe.
The caudal vertebrae vary from a rudimentary condition in the guinea-pig to a great size in the jumping-hare and prehensile-tailed porcupines.
In the loss of the last upper molar, the Liu-Kiu rabbit approximates to the picas, as does the tailless rabbit in the abortion of its caudal appendage.
The most important is the Nalon or Pravia, which receives the waters of the Caudal, the Trubia and the Narcea, and has a course 1 Servius, in speaking of it as oppidum, must be referring to the post-station.
The early larval stage of the " Lobster Moth " (Stauropus fagi), for example, presents a general resemblance, due to a combination of shape, colour, attitude and movements, to black ants, the swollen head and the caudal disk with its two tentacles representing respectively the abdomen and antenna-bearing head of the model.
There is a single unsegmented nerve-cord which runs along the ventral middle line and enlarges posteriorly into a caudal ganglion and anteriorly in a ganglion, the brain, which is not supra-oesophageal.
However, the fact that various recent birds possess the same kind of caudal skeleton, likewise without a pygostyle, although reduced to at least 13 vertebrae, shows that the two terms do not express a fundamental difference.
Io -r I cervical, 12-11 thoracic, 2 lumbar, 5-6 sacral, and 20 or 21 caudal, with a total caudal length of the Berlin specimen of 7 in.
The dorsal crest is continued round both extremities, becoming expanded to form the rostral fin in front and the caudal fin behind.
Finally, the caudal region comprises the post-anal division of the trunk.
The keel of the ventral fin is continued past the anus into the expanded caudal fin, and so it happens that the anal opening is displaced from the middle line to the left side of the fin.
In Asymmetron the caudal region is remarkable for the curious elongation of the notochord, which is produced far beyond the last of the myotomes.
The number of vertebrae is - in the cervical region 7, dorsal 13, lumbar 6, sacral 2, caudal varying according to the length of the tail, but generally from 21 to 25.
Very commonly the posterior end of the body becomes forked, two processes growing out at the sides of the anus and often persisting in the adult as the " caudal furca."
It may be supposed to have approximated, in general form, to A pus, with an elongated body composed of numerous similar somites and terminating in a caudal furca; with the post-oral appendages all similar and all bearing gnathobasic processes; and with a carapace originating as a shell-fold from the maxillary somite.
Thelyphonus and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal flagellum, the homologue of the scorpion's sting; but its exact use is unknown.
A long dorsal fln, high and pointed anteriorly, runs along nearly the whole length of the back; the caudal is strong and deeply cleft.
Ilium; Is, ischium; Pb, pubis; d.l, dorso-lumbar vertebrae; Cd, caudal vertebrae; Am, acetabulum.
This, when fully developed, consists of two parts, but inserted by a single ribbon-like tendon upon the hinder surface of the femur, near the end of its first third; the caudal part, femoro-caudalis, expressed by Garrod by the symbol A, arises from transverse processes of the tail; the iliac part (accessorofemoro-caudal of Garrod, with the symbol B), arises mostly from the outer surface of the postacetabular ilium.
The caudal region of the spine is longer than the body.
These larvae are minute oval creatures with a comparatively short apically fringed caudal prolongation and furnished with two pairs of short two-clawed processes, which may represent the limbs of anthropods and possibly the two pairs of legs found in Acari of the family Eriophyidae.
In them the dorsal and caudal fins are very rudimentary or absent, and the anal is very long, extending from the anus, which is under the head or throat, to the end of the body.
A third division, the Tartarides, a subordinate group of the Uropygi, contains minute Arachnida differing principally from the typical Uropygi in having the caudal process unjointed and short.
" larmier," or " crumen," of antelopes and deer, the frontal gland of the muntjak and of bats of the genus Phyllorhina, the chingland of the chevrotains and of Taphozous and certain other bats, the glandular patch behind the ear of the chamois and the reedbuck, the glands on the lower parts of the legs of most deer and a few antelopes (the position of which is indicated by tufts of long and often specially coloured hair), the interdigital foot-glands of goats, sheep, and many other ruminants, the temporal gland of elephants, the lateral glands of the musk-shrew, the gland on the back of the hyrax and the peccary (from the presence of which the latter animal takes the name Dicotyles), the gland on the tails of the members of the dog-tribe, the preputial glands of the muskdeer and beaver (both well known for the use made of their powerfully odorous secretion in perfumery), and also of the swine and hare, the anal glands of Carnivora, the perineal gland of the civet (also of commercial value), the caudal glands of the fox and goat, the gland on the wing-membrane of bats of the genus Saccopteryx, the post-digital gland of the rhinoceros, &c. Very generally these glands are common to both sexes, and it is in such cases that their function as a means of mutual recognition is most evident.