(4) Caudal, those which are not connected with the pelvis.
The last six or seven caudal vertebrae coalesce into the pygostyle, an upright blade which carries the rectrices.
In all the Neornithes the total number of caudal vertebrae, inclusive of those which coalesce, is reduced to at least 13.
D.l, Dorso-lumbar, s, sacral, c, caudal vertebrae.
- Pelvis and caudal vertebrae of adult Fowl, side view, natural size.
This, when fully developed, consists of two parts, but inserted by a single ribbon-like tendon upon the hinder surface of the femur, near the end of its first third; the caudal part, femoro-caudalis, expressed by Garrod by the symbol A, arises from transverse processes of the tail; the iliac part (accessorofemoro-caudal of Garrod, with the symbol B), arises mostly from the outer surface of the postacetabular ilium.
Of course this doubleheaded condition is the more primitive, and as such exists in most nidifugous birds, but in many of these, as well as in many nidicolous birds, either the caudal or the iliac head is absent, and in a very few (Cancroma, Dicholophus, Steatornis and some Cathartes) the whole muscle is absent.
Lastly, towards the caudal region the right and left strands approach and anastomose, eventually coalescing in the mid line.
Caudal vertebrae more than thirteen, without a pygostyle, but with about twelve pairs of rectrices.
Not more than thirteen caudal vertebrae.
The ventral and anal fins are white, tinged with pale red; and the dorsal, pectoral and caudal tipped with black.
F2, f 3, Lateral and caudal sb, Seminal pouch.
Z, Caudal appendage.
Aquatic larvae with caudal leaf-gills or with rectal tracheal system.
The Saururae have the metacarpals well developed and not ancylosed, and the caudal vertebrae are numerous and large, so that.
The caudal fin is crescent-shaped, strengthened at the base by two short ridges on each side.
These larvae are minute oval creatures with a comparatively short apically fringed caudal prolongation and furnished with two pairs of short two-clawed processes, which may represent the limbs of anthropods and possibly the two pairs of legs found in Acari of the family Eriophyidae.
Vertebrae: cervical, 7; dorsal, 18; lumbar, 5; sacral, 6; caudal about 12.
Vertebrae: cervical, 7; dorsal, 19-20; lumbar, 3; sacral, 4; caudal, about 22.
BURBOT, or EEL-Pout (Lota vulgaris), a fish of the family Gadidae, which differs from the ling in the dorsal and anal fins reaching the caudal, and in the small size of all the teeth.
Ce, Cerebral arteries; sp, supra - spinal or medullary artery; c, caudal artery; 1, lateral anastomotic artery of Limulus.
Opisthosoma without post-anal scierite and posterior caudal elongation: with frequently a pair of small lobate FIG.
(Original drawing by Pocock and Pickard-Cambridge, after Hansen and Sorensen.) caudal support for the many-jointed flagelliform telson, as in the Urotricha.
An, Orifice within which the caudal a, Movable (hinged) sclerite (sosegments are withdrawn.
Of Oviedo, on the river Caudal, a tributary of the Nalon.
Fins without spines; caudal fin, if present, without expanded hypural, perfectly symmetrical, and supported by the neural and haemal spines of the posterior vertebrae, and by basal bones similar to those supporting the dorsal and anal rays.
This type of caudal fin must be regarded as secondary, the Gadidae being, no doubt, derived from fishes in which the homocercal fin of the typical Teleostean had been lost.
The genus Gadus is characterized by having three dorsal and two anal fins, and a truncated or notched caudal fin.
Long) consists of a subcylindrical body and a caudal appendage.
Apart from these characteristics, the most distinctive feature of earwigs is the presence at the end of the abdomen of a pair of pincers which are in reality modified appendages, known as cercopods, and represent the similar limbs of Japyx and the caudal feelers of Campodea and some other insects.
The species of Bungarus, four in number, are extremely common in India, Burma, and Ceylon, and are distinguished by having only one row of undivided sub-caudal shields.
A long dorsal fln, high and pointed anteriorly, runs along nearly the whole length of the back; the caudal is strong and deeply cleft.
" larmier," or " crumen," of antelopes and deer, the frontal gland of the muntjak and of bats of the genus Phyllorhina, the chingland of the chevrotains and of Taphozous and certain other bats, the glandular patch behind the ear of the chamois and the reedbuck, the glands on the lower parts of the legs of most deer and a few antelopes (the position of which is indicated by tufts of long and often specially coloured hair), the interdigital foot-glands of goats, sheep, and many other ruminants, the temporal gland of elephants, the lateral glands of the musk-shrew, the gland on the back of the hyrax and the peccary (from the presence of which the latter animal takes the name Dicotyles), the gland on the tails of the members of the dog-tribe, the preputial glands of the muskdeer and beaver (both well known for the use made of their powerfully odorous secretion in perfumery), and also of the swine and hare, the anal glands of Carnivora, the perineal gland of the civet (also of commercial value), the caudal glands of the fox and goat, the gland on the wing-membrane of bats of the genus Saccopteryx, the post-digital gland of the rhinoceros, &c. Very generally these glands are common to both sexes, and it is in such cases that their function as a means of mutual recognition is most evident.
Thelyphonus and its allies, however, have a long tactile caudal flagellum, the homologue of the scorpion's sting; but its exact use is unknown.
A third division, the Tartarides, a subordinate group of the Uropygi, contains minute Arachnida differing principally from the typical Uropygi in having the caudal process unjointed and short.
It may be supposed to have approximated, in general form, to A pus, with an elongated body composed of numerous similar somites and terminating in a caudal furca; with the post-oral appendages all similar and all bearing gnathobasic processes; and with a carapace originating as a shell-fold from the maxillary somite.
Very commonly the posterior end of the body becomes forked, two processes growing out at the sides of the anus and often persisting in the adult as the " caudal furca."
The number of vertebrae is - in the cervical region 7, dorsal 13, lumbar 6, sacral 2, caudal varying according to the length of the tail, but generally from 21 to 25.
The dorsal crest is continued round both extremities, becoming expanded to form the rostral fin in front and the caudal fin behind.
Finally, the caudal region comprises the post-anal division of the trunk.
The keel of the ventral fin is continued past the anus into the expanded caudal fin, and so it happens that the anal opening is displaced from the middle line to the left side of the fin.
In Asymmetron the caudal region is remarkable for the curious elongation of the notochord, which is produced far beyond the last of the myotomes.