PYATIGORSK, a town and watering-place of Russian Caucasia, in the province of Terek, 141 m.
Caucasia and S.W.
The average number of women to every 100 men in the Russian governments proper was 102.9; in Poland, 98.6; in Finland, 102.2; in Caucasia, 88.9; in Siberia, 93'7; and in Turkestan and Transcaspia, 83 o.
It has the Black Sea and Caucasia, being separated from the latter by the Manych depression, which in Post-Pliocene times connected the Sea of Azov with the Caspian.
The Kuma, the Terek and the Kura, with the Aras, which receives the waters of Lake Gok-cha, belong to Caucasia.'
Through 30° of latitude, the climate of its different portions, apart Climate, from the Crimea and Caucasia, presents a striking uni formity.
Everywhere the rainfall is small: if Finland and Poland on the one hand and Caucasia with the Caspian depression on the other be excluded, the average yearly rainfall varies between 16 and 28 in.
Coast of the Crimea and Caucasia, as well as the Caspian deserts, have each their own individuality.
Caucasia, lies the " black earth " region.
The actual distribution of arable land, forests and meadows, in European Russia and Poland is shown in the following table The land in European Russia and Poland (Caucasia being excluded) is divided amongst the different classes of owners as follows Down to January 1st 1903, the peasants had actually redeemed out of the land allotted to them in 1861 a total of 280,530,516 acres..
But generally in from 18 to 33 out of the 72 governments in European Russia (including Caucasia) and Poland the yield of cereals is not sufficient for the wants of the people.
Territory and Caucasia), the annual production of wine amounting to 35-50 million gallons, three-fifths in Caucasia.
Sericulture, which was in a flourishing condition in the 'sixties both in Caucasia and in S.
Russia and Caucasia, and on the steamboats of the Volga system.
Caucasia, having been connected with the Rostov-Vladikavkaz line, has consequently also been brought into touch with the Russian railways.
The southern boundary of Caucasia is in part coincident with the river Aras (Araxes), in part purely conventional and political.
Mingrelia and Imeretia (valley of Rion) are the gardens of Caucasia, but the high valleys of Svanetia, farther north on the south slopes of the Caucasus mountains, are wild and difficult of access.
It is in this valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133 inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).
Climate.-Owing in part to the great differences in altitude in different regions of Caucasia and in part to the directions in which the mountain ranges run, and consequently the quarters towards which their slopes face, the climate varies very greatly according to locality.
Generally speaking, it may be characterized as a climate of extremes on the Armenian highlands, in the Kura valley and in northern Caucasia, and as maritime and genial in Lenkoran, on the Black Sea coastlands, and in the valley of the Rion.
The following table gives particulars of temperature averages at a few typical places: In respect of precipitation the entire region of Caucasia may be divided into two strikingly contrasted regions, a wet and a dry.
Most rain falls at Batum and at Lenkoran in the autumn, in northern Caucasia and in Transcaucasia in spring and summer, but in the vicinity of the Sea of Azov in winter.
Flora and Fauna.-Plant-life, in such a mountainous country as Caucasia, being intimately dependent upon aspect and altitude, is treated under Caucasus.
The wild animals of Caucasia are for the most part the same as those which frequent the mountainous parts of central Europe, though there is also an irruption of Asiatic forms, e.g.
Ethnology.-The population of Caucasia is increasing rapidly.
Of the total population 3,725,543 lived in northern Caucasia and 5,564,547 in Transcaucasia (including Daghestan).
According to the languages spoken the populations of Caucasia admit of being classified as follows,' according to Senator N.
Rye and wheat are the most important crops harvested in northern Caucasia, but oats, barley and maize are also cultivated, whereas in Transcaucasia the principal crops are maize, rice tobacco and cotton.
It is estimated that nearly 54,0 00 acres are under vineyards in northern Caucasia and some 278,000 acres in Transcaucasia, the aggregate yield of wine being.
The principal approach to Caucasia from Russia by rail is the line that runs from Rostov-on-Don to Vladikavkaz at the foot of the central Caucasus range.
To the ancient Greeks Caucasia, and the mighty range which dominates it, were a region of mystery and romance.
Outside the domain of myth, the earliest connexion of the Greeks with that part of the world would appear to have been through the maritime colonies, such as Dioscurias, which the Milesians founded on the Black Sea coast in the 7th century B.C. For more than two thousand years the most powerful state in Caucasia was that of Georgia, the authentic history of which begins with its submission to Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. The southern portion of Transcaucasia fell during the ist century B.C. under the sway of Armenia, and with that country passed under the dominion of Rome, and so eventually of the Eastern empire.
By the peace of Gulistan in 1813 Persia ceded to Russia several districts in eastern Caucasia, from Lenkoran northwards to Derbent.
To the latter we are indebted for a valuable map of Caucasia, 1:210,000, which since the first publication (1863-1885) has undergone careful revision.
(2) A district town of Russia, northern Caucasia, province of Kuban, on Kuban river, and on the main line of the Caucasian railway, 40 m.
ZHELESNOVODSK, a health resort of Russian Caucasia, in the province of Terek, lying at an altitude of 1885 ft.
SUKHUM-KALEH, a seaport of Russian Caucasia in the government of Kutais.
Only in the Turkish provinces bordering on Trans-Caucasia did massacre and deportation fail.
30 1918, terminated hostilities between the Allied Powers and Turkey, gave the Allies control of Constantinople and the Straits, and ensured the evacuation of Trans-Caucasia by Turkish troops.
ABKHASIA, or Abhasia, a tract of Russian Caucasia, government of Kutais.
She married in her seventeenth year a man very much her senior, Nicephore Blavatsky, a Russian official in Caucasia, from whom she was separated after a few months; in later days, when seeking to invest herself with a halo of virginity, she described the marriage as a nominal one.
This custom, which is still observed among the Jews of Caucasia (Tchorni, Sepher ha-Masaoth, pp. 191-192), is very ancient, as it is mentioned in the Talmud (Sanhedrin 64).
Krynicki (which alone is found in southern Russia, Caucasia and Asia Minor) shares its haunts with it.'
NUKHA, a town of Russian Caucasia, in the government of Elizavetpol, and previous to 1819 the capital of the khanate of Sheki, lying 57 m.
It occupies an advantageous position on the great artery of Russian trade, at a place where the manufactured and agricultural products of the basin of the Oka meet the metal wares from that of the Kama, the corn and salt brought from the south-eastern governments, the produce of the Caspian fisheries, and the various wares imported from Siberia, Central Asia, Caucasia and Persia.
In Asia wine is produced, according to Thudichum, principally in Caucasia and Armenia.
Owing to its situation on the navigable river Don and at the junction of three railways, radiating to north-western Russia, Caucasia and the Volga respectively, Rostov has become the chief seaport of south-eastern Russia, being second in importance on the Black Sea to Odessa only.
TRANSCAUCASIA, a general name given to the governments and provinces of Russian Caucasia, excluding the steppe provinces of Kuban and Terek and the steppe government of Stavropol.
The Tatars of Caucasia, who inhabit the upper Kuban, the steppes of the lower Kuma and the Kura, and the Aras, number about 1,350,000.
In addition to agriculture, which (with the exception of the Usuri Cossacks) is sufficient to supply their needs and usually to leave a certain surplus, they"carry on extensive cattle and horse breeding, vine culture in Caucasia, fishing on the Don, the Ural, and the Caspian, hunting, bee-culture, &c. The extraction of coal, gold and other minerals which are found on their territories is mostly rented to strangers, who also own most factories.
Hydrography.-Nearly all the larger rivers of Caucasia have their sources in the central parts of the Caucasus range.
KISLOVODSK, a town and health-resort of Russian Caucasia, in the province of Terek, situated at an altitude of 2690 ft., in a deep caldron-shaped valley on the N.
TEMRYUK, a seaport of Russia, in northern Caucasia, and in the government of Kuban, on the Sea of Azov, 81 m.
Towards the end of the Glacial period the Tian-shan Mountains had a flora very like that of northern Caucasia, combining the characteristics of the flora of the European Alps and the flora of the Altai, while the prairies had a flora very much like that of the south Russian steppes.
DERBENT, or Derbend, a town of Russia, Caucasia, in the province of Daghestan, on the western shore of the Caspian, 153 m.
Novorossiysk is connected by a branch railway to Tikhoryetskaya (169 m.) with the main Caucasian line, which crosses the Volga near Tsaritsyn, and has become an important centre for the export of corn, and since the petroleum wells of Groznyi in northern Caucasia were tapped it has become an entrepot for the export of petroleum.
The annual rainfall (90 in.) is higher than anywhere in Caucasia, but it is very unequally distributed (23 in.