CALI, an inland town of the department of Cauca, Colombia, South America, about 180 m.
Above sea-level on the western side of the Cauca valley, one of the healthiest regions of Colombia.
From the foot of the volcano Purace, near the source of the Cauca and on one of its small tributaries, 5712 ft.
The ridge forming the water-parting between the basins of the Cauca and Patia rivers crosses between the Central and Western Cordilleras at this point and culminates a few miles to the south.
It is an important commercial centre, being on the road which crosses the Quindio pass, or paramo, into the Cauca valley.
Medellin, the foundation of which dates from 1674, stands in the valley of the Porce, a tributary of the Cauca, and is reputed to be one of the healthiest as well as one of the most attractive cities of the republic. It has a university, national college, school of mines and other educational institutions, assaying and refining laboratories, a public library and a mint.
Was part of a larger scheme proposed in 1906 for bringing the Cauca Valley into railway communication with the national capital.
Of Medellin, on the old trade route across the Cordillera between Honda, on the Magdalena, and the Cauca Valley.
Andreanum, found by Andre at Cauca (6234 ft.), was considered by the traveller to be the true S.
The greater part of its territory lies between the Magdalena and Cauca rivers and includes the northern end of the Central Cordillera.
Other important towns are Manizales (18,000) in the extreme south, the commercial centre of a rich gold and grazing region; Antioquia, the old capital, on the Cauca; and Puerto Berri() on the Magdalena, from which a railway has been started to the capital.
He was a native of Spain, but the exact place of his birth is uncertain (Cauca in Galicia according to Idatius and Zosimus, Italica according to Marcellinus).
If the line which formerly separated the Colombian departments of Cauca and Panama is taken as forming the international boundary, this line follows the water-parting between the streams which flow eastward to the Atrato, and those which flow westward to the Gulf of San Miguel, the terminal points being near Cape Tiburon on the Caribbean coast, and at about 7° so' N.
The other part of the republic, which may be roughly estimated at two-fifths of its total area, consists of an extremely rugged mountainous country, traversed from south to north by the parallel river valleys of the Magdalena, Cauca and Atrato.
This range runs in a north-north-east direction and separates the valleys of the Magdalena and Cauca, terminating in some low hills south-west of El Banco, a small town on the lower Magdalena.
It then forms the divide between the Cauca and Atrato valleys, and terminates near the Caribbean coast.
It is worthy of note that the principal rivers of these three classes - the Patia, Cauca, Magdalena, Caqueta and Putumayo - all have their sources on the high plateaus of southern Colombia and within a comparatively limited area.
Above sea-level - the Magdalena in the Laguna del Buey (Ox Lake) on the Las Papas plateau, and the Cauca a short distance westward in the Laguna de Santiago on the Paramo de Guanacas - and flow northward in parallel courses with the great Central Cordillera, forming the waterparting between their drainage basins.
The Cauca differs much from the Magdalena, although its principal features are the same.
Below its source the Cauca enters a long narrow valley with an average elevation of 3500 ft., where it is navigable for over 200 m., and then descends 2500 ft.
At Honda which could easily be overcome, the Cauca has only 200 m.
So difficult is the country through which the Cauca has cut its tortuous course that the fertile upper valley is completely isolated from the Caribbean, and has no other practicable outlet than the overland route from Cali to Buenaventura, on the Pacific. The upper sources of the Cauca flow through a highly volcanic region, and are so impregnated with sulphuric and other acids that fish cannot live in them.
7° N., and not far from the sources of the Sin(' and Bacuba, is essentially a river of the plain, flowing north-east across a level country filled with small lakes and subject to inundations to a junction with the Cauca just before it joins the Magdalena.
The valley of the Cauca is much narrower than that of the Magdalena, and between Cartago and Caceres the mountain ranges on both sides press down upon the river and confine it to a narrow canyon.
The Cauca unites with the Magdalena about 200 m.
Between the Western and the Central Cordilleras is a longitudinal depression along which the river Cauca finds its way towards the sea.
In Ecuador the depression between the Eastern and Western Cordilleras is almost entirely filled with modern lavas and agglomerates; in Colombia the corresponding Cauca depression is almost free from such deposits.
High temperatures prevail throughout the greater part of the Magdalena and Cauca valleys, because the mountain ranges which enclose them shut out the prevailing winds.
The temperate and subtropical regions cover the greater part of the departments traversed by the Eastern Cordillera, the northern end of the Central Cordillera, the Santa Marta plateaus, and the Upper Cauca Valley.
The fifteen departments thus constituted, with the official estimates of 1905 regarding their areas and populations, are as follows: Of these departments the original eight are Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyaca (or Bojaca), Cauca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena, Santander and Tolima.
The seven new departments are: Atlantico, taken from the northern extremity of Bolivar; Caldas, the southern part of Antioquia; Galan, the southern districts of Santander, including Charala, Socorro, Velez, and its capital San Gil; Huila, the southern part of Tolima, including the headwaters of the Magdalena and the districts about Neiva and La Plata; Narino, the southern part of Cauca extending from the eastern Cordillera to the Pacific coast; Quesada, a cluster of small, wellpopulated districts north of Bogota formerly belonging to Cundinamarca, including Zipaquira, Guatavita, Ubate and Pacho; and Tundama, the northern part of Boyaca lying on the frontier of Galan in the vicinity of its capital Santa Rosa.
Small steamers also navigate the lower Cauca and Nechi rivers, and a limited service is maintained on the upper Cauca.
Goats are largely produced for their skins, and in some localities, as in Cauca, sheep are raised for their wool.
According to his computations the eight omitting Panama, had produced during silver: Antioquia Cauca Tolima .
The department of Cauca is considered to be the richest of the republic in mineral deposits, but it is less conveniently situated for carrying on mining operations.
On October 16, 1899 - the outstanding circulation then amounting to 46,000,000 pesos, - the government decreed an unlimited issue to meet its expenditures in suppressing the revolution, and later on the departments of Antioquia, Bolivar, Cauca, and Santander were authorized to issue paper money for themselves.
„ Bolivar „ Cauca „ Santander Pesos.
During his term of office revolutionary disturbances occurred in the provinces of Cauca and Antioquia, but were suppressed with no great difficulty.
Central chain, separated from the western chain by the valley of the Cauca and from the eastern by the valley of the Magdalena, is unbroken; it is the more important owing to its greater altitudes and is of volcanic character.