When, however, in connexion with the quarrel about the archbishopric of Cologne (1837), political Catholicism raised its head menacingly, Leo turned against it with extreme violence in his open letter (1838) to Goerres, its foremost champion.
Among other subjects, he wrote on the School of Hierotheus, on Romish falsifications of the Greek Fathers, on Leo XIII., on Liberal Ultramontanism, on the Papal Teaching in regard to Morals, on Vincentius of Lerins and he carried on a controversy with Professor Willibald Beyschlag, of the German Evangelical Church, on the respective merits of Protestantism and Old Catholicism regarded as a basis for teaching the Christian faith.
He vigorously restored Roman Catholicism in his diocese, made no difficulty about submitting to the papal jurisdiction which he had forsworn, and in 1555 began the persecution to which he owes his fame.
The suppression of Roman Catholicism was zealously pursued by Cromwell; the priests were hunted down and imprisoned or exiled to Spain or Barbados, the mass was everywhere forbidden, and the only liberty allowed was that of conscience, the Romanist not being obliged to attend Protestant services.
In most countries where religious opinion is sharply divided the procession of Corpus Christi is therefore now forbidden, even when Catholicism is the dominant religion.
The decrees of this council defined Roman Catholicism against the Reformation; and, while failing to regenerate morality, they enforced a hypocritical observance of public decency.
His political ideal was a federation of all the Italian states under the presidency of the pope, on a basis of Catholicism, but without a constitution.
All these authorities had now legally established Roman Catholicism as the national faith, and Cranmer had no logical ground on which to resist.
To a less extent, similar problems and alternatives arise in regard to the church: - Catholicism a compromise between Jewish Christianity and Pauline or Gentile Christianity (F.
Weinel); the church supernaturally guided (R.C. apologetic; in a modified degree High Church apologetic); essential - not necessarily exclusive - truth of Paulinism, essential error in first principles of Catholicism (Protestant apologetic).
To understand the problem of the Raskolniki it is necessary to bear two things in mind: the fundamental principle of Eastern Orthodoxy as distinct from Western Catholicism, and the practical identification in Russia of the National Church with the National State.
Nor is the sincerity of the Catholicism he professed in these boyish days in any way discredited by the fact of his subsequent lack of religion.
Such tenets were destructive not only of Catholicism but of Christianity of any kind and of civil society itself; and for this reason so unecclesiastical a person as the emperor Frederick II.
The new Catholicism was promulgated by authority and accepted with deference.
" Catholic " and " Catholicism " thus again changed and narrowed their meaning; they became, by universal usage, identified definitely with " Romanist " and the creed and obedience of Rome.
The additional qualification of " Roman " she tolerates, since it proclaims her doctrine of the see of Rome as the keystone of Catholicism; but to herself she is "the Catholic Church," and her members are "Catholics."
But, though the invention of the terms " Roman Catholic " and " Roman Catholicism " early implied the retention by the English Church of her Catholic claim, her members were never, after the Reformation, called Catholics; even the Caroline divines of the 17th century, for all their " popish practices," styled themselves Protestants, though they would have professed their adherence to " the Catholic faith " and their belief in " the Holy Catholic Church."
It is true that in Roman Catholicism, in medieval as in modern times, the working of miracles has been ascribed to its saints; but the character of most of these miracles is such as to lack the a priori probability which has been claimed for the Scripture miracles.
Loisy's developmental defence of Catholicism; Professor Harnack's review of L'Evangile et l'Eglise in the Theol.
Catholicism increasingly took for granted that a man imperilled his soul by thinking for himself; Protestantism replied that he could certainly lose it, if he left his thinking to another.
Yet Clement entertained high hopes for Catholicism; he laboured for a union with the Greek Church, and was ready to facilitate the return of the Protestants of Saxony.
In his youth, the excesses of absolutism had made Herculano a Liberal, and the attacks on his history turned this man, full of sentiment and deep religious conviction, into an anti-clerical who began to distinguish between political Catholicism and Christianity.
(628-644) on a mission to Heraclius, Sahdona was converted, apparently to catholicism,' and thereby caused much scandal in the East.
The relationship of Ultramontanism to Catholicism is a much-disputed problem.
The result was that a series of violent struggles took place between the old Catholicism and the new Ultramontane species (Hermes, Baader, Dellinger, &c.).
And as it always happens in contests of cunning that a stupid person gets the better of cleverer ones, Helene--having realized that the main object of all these words and all this trouble was, after converting her to Catholicism, to obtain money from her for Jesuit institutions (as to which she received indications)-before parting with her money insisted that the various operations necessary to free her from her husband should be performed.