There are the Third, Fifth and Sixth Crusades against the "infidel" Mahommedans encamped in the Holy Land; there is the Albigensian Crusade against the heretic Cathars; there is the Fourth Crusade, directed in the issue against the schismatic 4 Stevenson argues (op. cit.
An identical rite existed among the 12th century Cathars, and in the Celtic church of Gildas every presbyter was a Peter.
They no doubt deferred the baptism which is death to sin, perhaps because, like the Cathars, they held post-baptismal sin to be unforgivable.
Because they regarded their Perfect or Elect ones as Christs and anointed with the Spirit, the medieval Cathars regularly adored them.
The Christ is an elect one, who, as the Cathars (q.v.) put it, having been consoled or become a Paraclete in the flesh, stands in prayer with his hands outspread in the form of a cross, while the congregation of hearers or audientes adore the Christ in him.
2 Manicheans, Bogomils, Cathars and Paulicians for like reasons denied the name of church to material constructions of wood and stone.
Among the later Cathars of Europe we find the repudiation of marriage defended on the ground that the only true marriage is of Christ with his bride the Virgin church, and perhaps this is why Paulicians and Thonraki would not make of marriage a religious rite or sacrament.
Did the Paulicians, like the later Cathars (who in so much resembled them), reject water baptism?
The Cathars even held it necessary, in case a bishop fell into mortal sin, to repeat his ba p tisms and ordinations, for they had been vitiated by his sins.
The Cathars used only the Lord's prayer in consecrating the bread and used water for wine.
The Cathars and Patarenes, the Waldenses, the Anabaptists, and in Russia the Strigolniki, Molokani and Dukhobortsi, have all at different times been either identified with the Bogomils or closely connected with them.
CATHARS (CATHARI or Catharists), a widespread heretical sect of the middle ages.
Weavers), Bulgars, Concorricii, Albanenses, Albigeois, &c.; in both, Cathars and Manicheans.
This article relates to the Western Cathars, as they appear (1) in the Cathar Ritual written in Provencal and preserved in a 13th -century MS. in Lyons, published by Cledat, Paris, 1888; (2) in Bernard Gui's Practica inquisitionis haereticae pravitatis, edited by Canon C. Douais, Paris, 1886; and (3) in the proces verbal of the inquisitors' reports.
(Fn2) Christ was a life-giving spirit, and the boni homines, the "good men," as the Cathars called themselves, are his ambassadors.
The Cathars fell into two classes, corresponding to the Baptized and the Catechumens of the early church, namely, the Perfect, who had been "consoled," i.e.
The passages of the New Testament which seem to connive at the married relation were interpreted by the Cathars as spoken in regard of Christ and the church.
Fish were supposed to be born in the water without sexual connexion, and on the basis of this old physiological fallacy the Cathars equally with the Catholic framed their rule of fasting.
Of a consubstantial Trinity the Cathars naturally had never heard.
3 (where the Cathars' text must originally have omitted in v.
As Tertullian relates of his contemporaries in the 2nd century, so the Cathars would reserve part of their bread of blessing and keep it for years, eating of it occasionally though only after saying the Benedicite.
(Fn3) The Abbe Guiraud remarks that in refusing to take oaths the Cathars "contraried the social principles on which the constitutions of all states repose," and congratulates himself that society is not yet so thoroughly "laicized" as to have given up oaths in the most important acts of social life.
But it was often delayed until the deathbed, for the primitive idea that mortal sins committed after baptism were sins against the Holy Spirit and unforgivable, still influenced men, and survived among the Cathars up to the 14th century.
The Cathars of the middle ages discarded water baptism altogether as being a Jewish rite, but retained the laying on of hands with the traditio precis as sufficient initiation.