The catechumens or unbaptized, together with the penitents, remained in church during the Litany, collect, three lections, two psalms and homily.
The deacon then cried out: " Let the catechumens depart.
Let all catechumens go out."
After the catechumens were gone the priest said: " The Lord be with you, let us pray," and the service of the mass followed.
Martyres (perhaps the earliest of all), De baptismo haereticorum (now lost), De baptismo, De poenitentia, De oratione (the last three written for catechumens), De patientia, Ad uxorem Libri II., De praescriptione haereticorum, and Adv.
Chalcedon was repudiated afresh, union with the Jacobites instituted, use of water and leaven in the Eucharist condemned, the five days' preliminary fast before Lent restored, Saturday as well as Sunday made a day of feasting and synaxis, any but the orthodox excluded from the Maundy Thursday Communion, the first communion of the new catechumens; union of the Baptismal and Christmas feasts was restored, and the faithful forbidden to fast on Fridays from Easter until Pentecost.
Krose's Katholische Missionsstatistik (1908), the following totals of Roman Catholic Missions amongst non-Christians have been compiled: European priests, 7933; native priests, 5837; lay brothers, 5270; sisters, 21,320; catechists, 24,524; native membership, 7,441,215; catechumens, 1,517,909.
The singing of this is followed by bidding prayers for the peace and unity of the church, for the pope, the clergy, all ranks and conditions of men, the sovereign, for catechumens, the sick and afflicted, heretics and schismatics, Jews and heathen.
Perhaps an indication of it may be discerned as early as the 4th century in a custom, current in Spain, northern Italy and elsewhere, of washing the feet of the catechumens towards the end of Lent before their baptism.
The Cathars fell into two classes, corresponding to the Baptized and the Catechumens of the early church, namely, the Perfect, who had been "consoled," i.e.
In 441 a synod of sixteen bishops was held at Orange under the presidency of St Hilary of Arles, which adopted thirty canons touching the reconciliation of penitents and heretics; the ecclesiastical right of asylum, diocesan prerogatives of bishops, spiritual privileges of the defective or demoniac, the deportment of catechumens at worship, and clerical celibacy (forbidding married men to be ordained as deacons, and digamists to be advanced beyond the sub-diaconate).
For this reason the catechumens are anointed with holy oil both before and after baptism; the one act (of eastern origin) assists the expulsion of the evil spirits, the other (of western origin), taken in conjunction with imposition of hands, conveys the spirit and retains it in the person of the baptized.
There appears to be no locus poenitentiae for serious sins excepting in the case of catechumens, and there is a notable " perfectionist " tone in many of the prayers.
(e) There followed an act of unction, made in the East with the oil of the catechumens blessed only by the priest, in the West with the priest's saliva applied to the lips and ears.
The catechumens turned to the west in pronouncing this; then turning to the east they recited the creed.
The preparatory fasts of the catechumens must have helped to establish the Lenten fast, if indeed they were not its origin.
Cyril of Jerusalem, in his instruction of the catechumens, urges them to learn the Creed by heart, but not write it down.
Yet it is inconceivable that men and women should spend years, even whole lives, as catechumens within the pale of the church, and really remain ignorant all the time of the Trinitarian Epiclesis used in baptism, of the Creed, and above all of the Lord's Prayer.
As has been remarked above, the terror of postbaptismal sin and the fact that only one restoration was allowable influenced many as late as the 4th century to remain catechumens all their lives, and, like Constantine, to receive baptism on the deathbed alone.
93), catechumens were accustomed to fast before baptism, and the church fasted with them.
Their catechumens put them off with the answer that the drawn bows of the heavenly bodies gave them their round appearance.
There can be little doubt that the Didache was used as a manual for catechumens for several centuries.
After replying to the question of Deogratias, and giving sundry counsels as to the best method of interesting catechumens, Augustine concludes by giving a model catechetical lecture, in which he covers the whole of biblical history, beginning from the opening chapters of Genesis, and laying particular stress on the doctrinal parts of Scripture.
In spite of the numerous references to catechumens in Patristic literature, our knowledge of the details of the system is often very deficient, and upon some points there is considerable diversity of opinion amongst experts.
- Bingham and many of the older writers held that there were four classes of catechumens, representing different stages in the process of instruction: (a) " The inquirers" whose interest in Christianity had been sufficiently aroused to make them desire further information, and who received private and individual instruction from the teachers before they were admitted into the second class.
The Relation of Catechumens to the Church.
- Catechumens were allowed of course to attend church services, but at a certain point were dismissed with the words "Ite catechumens, missa est."
A passage in Augustine seems to imply that in some way they shared in the Sacrament, "that which they (the catechumens) receive, though it be not the Body of Christ, is yet an holy thing and more holy than the common food which sustains us, because it is a Sacrament" (De peccatorum meritis, ii.
New members are either catechumens or members transferred from other churches.
Are supposed by Marchi and others to indicate schoolrooms, where the catechumens were instructed by the bishop or presbyters.
Between 1581 and 1776 as many as fifty-nine heretics were burned at Lima, and there were twenty-nine " autos "; but the Inquisition affected Europeans rather than natives, for the Indians, as catechumens, were exempted from its terrors.
The moment at which the dismissal took place cannot be exactly determined, and it is not clear whether the catechumens were allowed to remain for a portion of the Communion service, and if so, whether as spectators or as partial participants.
28 catechumens, but the baptized who did not communicate left the church before the communion of the faithful began (?
Missa or missio, because the children and catechumens, or unbaptized believers, were dismissed before the eucharistic rite began.
The first regular catechisms seem to have grown out of the usual oral teaching of catechumens, and to have been compiled in the 8th and 9th centuries.
The word is specifically applied in the early church to the examination of the catechumens or those under instruction in the faith.
The same interest led to the division of the services into two general parts, which became known ultimately as the missa, eatechumenorum and the miss y fidelium, - that is, the more public service of prayer, praise and preaching open to all, including the catechumens or candidates for Church membership, and the private service for the administration of the eucharist, open only to full members of the Church in good and regular standing.
BAPTISTERY (Baptisterium, in the Greek Church ckgwTCVTiipcov), the separate hall or chapel, connected with the early Christian Church, in which the catechumens were instructed and the sacrament of baptism administered.
The baptistery proper was commonly a circular building, although sometimes it had eight and sometimes twelve sides, and consisted of an ante-room (rpoatAcos °Tacos) where the catechumens were instructed, and where before baptism they made their confession of faith, and an inner apartment where the sacrament was administered.
Baptisteries belong to a period of the church when great numbers of adult catechumens were baptized, and when immersion was the rule.
It was necessary to make them large, because in the early Church it was customary for the bishop to baptize all the catechumens in his diocese (and so baptisteries are commonly found attached to the cathedral and not to the parish churches), and also because the rite was performed only thrice in the year.
Augustine speaks of the salt administered to catechumens before baptism and of their exorcism as sacraments; and as late as 1129 Godefrid so calls the salt and water, oil and chrism, the ring and pastoral staff used in ordinations.