The catechism as we know it is intended primarily for children and uneducated persons.
SACRAMENT, in religion, a property or rite defined in the Anglican catechism as " an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace"; if the grace be allowed to be inherent in the external symbolic thing or act as well as in the faithful who receive or do it, this definition holds good not only for the Latin Church, but for more primitive religions as well.
Nowell is believed to have composed the Catechism inserted before the Order of Confirmation in the Prayer Book of 1549, which was supplemented in 1604 and is still in use; but the evidence is not conclusive.
He inherited a strong sentiment of independence from his mother; and his objections to the social homage expected by those whom the catechism boldly styled his "betters" made him an "agitator."
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.
In 1852 Comte published the Catechism of Positivism.
Three editions of his Welsh catechism were published for the use of his schools (1789, 1791 and 1794); an English catechism for the use of schools in Lady Huntingdon's Connexion was drawn up by him in 1797; his shorter catechism in Welsh appeared in 1799, and passed through several editions, in Welsh and English, before 1807, when his Instructor (still the Connexional catechism) appeared.
In this year he published his Exposition on the Church Catechism, perhaps better known by its sub-title, The Practice of Divine Love.
Early in his ministry he was "brought to a stand" while lecturing on the "Shorter Catechism" by the question "How doth Christ execute the office of a king ?"
Early in Elizabeth's reign, however, he wrote a larger catechism, to serve as a statement of Protestant principles; it was printed in 1570, and in the same year appeared his "middle" catechism, designed it would seem for the instruction of "simple curates."
The main principles of the Comtian system are derived from the Positive Polity and from two other works, - the Positivist Catechism: a Summary Exposition of the Universal Religion in Twelve Dialo ues between a Woman and a The g, g Elvis f Priest of Humanity; and, second, The Subjective Synthesis (1856), which is the first and only volume of a work upon mathematics announced at the end of the Positive Philosophy.
ZACHARIAS URSINUS (1534-1583), German theologian, and one of the authors of the Heidelberg Catechism, was born at Breslau on the 18th of July 1534, and became a disciple of Melanchthon at Wittenberg.
At the headquarters of his order, in Fremona, he soon acquired the two chief dialects of the country, translated a catechism, and set about the education of some Abyssinian children.
The use, however, of the Quicumque by Caesarius as a catechism may be explained by the suggestion that it had been taught him in his youth, so that his style had been moulded by it.
In this respect catechisms of modern times, from Luther's down to the recent Evangelical catechism of the Free Churches, and including from their respective points of view both the catechism of the Church of England and the catechism of the council of Trent, are markedly superior to articles and synodical decrees.
This same Elector Frederick invited two young divines, Zacharias Ursinus and Caspar Olevianus,, to prepare the afterwards celebrated Heidelberg catechism, which in 1563 superseded Calvin's catechism in the Palatinate.
" Ans.: " That men may know God by whom they were created," - the Heidelberg catechism has: " What is thy only comfort in life and death ?"
Mention may also be made of the longer catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Church compiled by Philaret, metropolitan of Moscow, revised and adopted by the Russian Holy Synod in 1839.
The Augsburg Confession (1530) is divided into numerous " articles," while Luther's Lesser Catechism gathers Christianity under three " articles "- Creation, Redemption, Sanctification.
The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all that is distinctively Lutheran.
The Waldenses of Savoy and France, the Brethren (small communities of evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the Unitas Fratrum of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530) for the instruction of their children.
Now all these efforts were superseded by Luther's Smaller Catechism meant for the people themselves and especially for children, and by his Larger Catechism intended for clergy and schoolmasters.
The Smaller Catechism, with the Augsburg Confession, was made the Rule of Faith in Denmark in 1537.
In this same year (1537) John Calvin at Geneva published his catechism for children.
The Reformed churches of the Palatinate, on the other hand, used the Heidelberg Catechism (1562-1563), "sweetspirited, experiential, clear, moderate and happily-phrased," mainly the work of two of Calvin's younger disciples, Kaspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus.
The Heidelberg Catechism, set forth by order of the elector, is perhaps the most widely accepted symbol of the Calvinistic faith, and is noteworthy for its emphasis on the less controversial aspects of the Genevan theology.
As revised by the synod of Dort in 1619, this catechism became the standard of most of the Reformed churches of central Europe, and in time of the Dutch and German Reformed churches of America.
In Scotland both Calvin's Geneva Catechism and then the Heidelberg Catechism were translated by order of the General Assembly and annotated.
The Larger Catechism is " for such as have made some proficiency in the knowledge of the Christian religion," but is too detailed and minute for memorizing, and has never received anything like the reception accorded to the Shorter Catechism, which is " for such as are of weaker capacity."
In England the Roman Catholic bishops have agreed on the use of what is known as " The Penny Catechism," which is very lucid and well constructed.
But theologians in the West had elaborated a theory of the grace of confirmation, which made its severance from baptism seem natural; and at the time of the Reformation, while neither side favoured the Eastern practice, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.
Uytenbogaert gave them a catechism and regulated their churchly order.
CATECHISM (from Gr.
Offered to license the printing of the catechism, but, as the negotiations were broken off, this was not done.
The Shorter Catechism, after a brief introduction on the end, rule and essence of religion, is divided into two parts: - I.
There was no universal catechism published by the Latin Church before the council of Trent, but several provincial councils, e.g.
In Germany and Scotland (where Archbishop Hamilton's catechism appeared in 1552 and was ordered to be read in church by the parish priest), moved in self-defence along the lines already adopted by the reformers.
But the Roman Catholic Church as a whole has never had any one official catechism, each bishop being allowed to settle the matter for his own diocese.
A smaller catechism was drawn up by order of Peter the Great in 1723.
(1839), each in his day metropolitan of Moscow, are bulky compilations which cannot be memorized, though there is a short introductory catechism prefaced to Philaret's volume (Eng.
- The catechism of the Church of England is included in the Book of Common Prayer between the Orders.