His principal work was Lectures on the Catechism of the Church of England (London, 1769).
The catechism as we know it is intended primarily for children and uneducated persons.
His translation of the German Catechism of Justus Jonas, known as Cranmer's Catechism, appeared in the following year.
SACRAMENT, in religion, a property or rite defined in the Anglican catechism as " an outward and visible sign of an inward and spiritual grace"; if the grace be allowed to be inherent in the external symbolic thing or act as well as in the faithful who receive or do it, this definition holds good not only for the Latin Church, but for more primitive religions as well.
Nowell is believed to have composed the Catechism inserted before the Order of Confirmation in the Prayer Book of 1549, which was supplemented in 1604 and is still in use; but the evidence is not conclusive.
He inherited a strong sentiment of independence from his mother; and his objections to the social homage expected by those whom the catechism boldly styled his "betters" made him an "agitator."
In 1501 Bishop Luke of Prague edited the first Protestant hymn-book; in 1502 he issued a catechism, which circulated in Switzerland and Germany and fired the catechetical zeal of Luther; in 1565 John Blahoslaw translated the New Testament into Bohemian; in1579-1593the Old Testament was added; and the whole, known as the Kralitz Bible, is used in Bohemia still.
It consists of a calendar and almanac, a catechism, hymns, many of them translations from the German, metrical versions of the Psalms, and a collection of ballads and satirical poems against the Catholic church and clergy.
In 1852 Comte published the Catechism of Positivism.
Three editions of his Welsh catechism were published for the use of his schools (1789, 1791 and 1794); an English catechism for the use of schools in Lady Huntingdon's Connexion was drawn up by him in 1797; his shorter catechism in Welsh appeared in 1799, and passed through several editions, in Welsh and English, before 1807, when his Instructor (still the Connexional catechism) appeared.
In this year he published his Exposition on the Church Catechism, perhaps better known by its sub-title, The Practice of Divine Love.
Early in his ministry he was "brought to a stand" while lecturing on the "Shorter Catechism" by the question "How doth Christ execute the office of a king ?"
Early in Elizabeth's reign, however, he wrote a larger catechism, to serve as a statement of Protestant principles; it was printed in 1570, and in the same year appeared his "middle" catechism, designed it would seem for the instruction of "simple curates."
The main principles of the Comtian system are derived from the Positive Polity and from two other works, - the Positivist Catechism: a Summary Exposition of the Universal Religion in Twelve Dialo ues between a Woman and a The g, g Elvis f Priest of Humanity; and, second, The Subjective Synthesis (1856), which is the first and only volume of a work upon mathematics announced at the end of the Positive Philosophy.
ZACHARIAS URSINUS (1534-1583), German theologian, and one of the authors of the Heidelberg Catechism, was born at Breslau on the 18th of July 1534, and became a disciple of Melanchthon at Wittenberg.
At the headquarters of his order, in Fremona, he soon acquired the two chief dialects of the country, translated a catechism, and set about the education of some Abyssinian children.
The use, however, of the Quicumque by Caesarius as a catechism may be explained by the suggestion that it had been taught him in his youth, so that his style had been moulded by it.
In this respect catechisms of modern times, from Luther's down to the recent Evangelical catechism of the Free Churches, and including from their respective points of view both the catechism of the Church of England and the catechism of the council of Trent, are markedly superior to articles and synodical decrees.
This same Elector Frederick invited two young divines, Zacharias Ursinus and Caspar Olevianus,, to prepare the afterwards celebrated Heidelberg catechism, which in 1563 superseded Calvin's catechism in the Palatinate.
" Ans.: " That men may know God by whom they were created," - the Heidelberg catechism has: " What is thy only comfort in life and death ?"
Mention may also be made of the longer catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Church compiled by Philaret, metropolitan of Moscow, revised and adopted by the Russian Holy Synod in 1839.
The Augsburg Confession (1530) is divided into numerous " articles," while Luther's Lesser Catechism gathers Christianity under three " articles "- Creation, Redemption, Sanctification.
The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all that is distinctively Lutheran.
The Waldenses of Savoy and France, the Brethren (small communities of evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the Unitas Fratrum of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530) for the instruction of their children.
Now all these efforts were superseded by Luther's Smaller Catechism meant for the people themselves and especially for children, and by his Larger Catechism intended for clergy and schoolmasters.
The Smaller Catechism, with the Augsburg Confession, was made the Rule of Faith in Denmark in 1537.
In this same year (1537) John Calvin at Geneva published his catechism for children.
The Reformed churches of the Palatinate, on the other hand, used the Heidelberg Catechism (1562-1563), "sweetspirited, experiential, clear, moderate and happily-phrased," mainly the work of two of Calvin's younger disciples, Kaspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus.
The Heidelberg Catechism, set forth by order of the elector, is perhaps the most widely accepted symbol of the Calvinistic faith, and is noteworthy for its emphasis on the less controversial aspects of the Genevan theology.
As revised by the synod of Dort in 1619, this catechism became the standard of most of the Reformed churches of central Europe, and in time of the Dutch and German Reformed churches of America.
In Scotland both Calvin's Geneva Catechism and then the Heidelberg Catechism were translated by order of the General Assembly and annotated.
The Larger Catechism is " for such as have made some proficiency in the knowledge of the Christian religion," but is too detailed and minute for memorizing, and has never received anything like the reception accorded to the Shorter Catechism, which is " for such as are of weaker capacity."
In England the Roman Catholic bishops have agreed on the use of what is known as " The Penny Catechism," which is very lucid and well constructed.
A smaller catechism was drawn up by order of Peter the Great in 1723.
(1839), each in his day metropolitan of Moscow, are bulky compilations which cannot be memorized, though there is a short introductory catechism prefaced to Philaret's volume (Eng.
- The catechism of the Church of England is included in the Book of Common Prayer between the Orders.
Supplement to what had become known as the Shorter Catechism established its use as against the longer one, King Edward' VIth's Catechisme, which had been drawn up in 1 553 by John Ponet or Poynet, bishop of Winchester, and then revised and enlarged in 1570 by Alexander Nowell, Overall's predecessor as dean of St Paul's.
The Anglican catechism with occasional modification, especially in the sacramental section, is used not only in the Church of England but in the Episcopal churches of Ireland, Scotland, the British dominions and the United States of America.
By the rubric of the Prayer Book and by the 59th canon of 2603 the clergy are enjoined to teach the catechism in church on Sundays and holidays after the second lesson at Evening Prayer.
In 1898 the National Council of the Evangelical Free Churches in England and Wales published 1 Cranmer had published a separate and larger catechism on the basis of the work of Justus Jonas in 1548; note also Allen's Catechisme, A Christen Instruction of the Principall Pointes of Christes Religion (1551).
An Evangelical Free Church Catechism, the work of a committee (convened by Rev. Hugh Price Hughes) comprising Congregationalists, Baptists, Methodists (Wesleyan, Primitive and others), and Presbyterians, and thus representing directly or indirectly the beliefs of sixty or seventy millions of avowed Christians in all parts of the world, a striking example of inter-denominational unity.
More remarkable still in some respects is The School Catechism, issued in 1907 by a conference of members of the Reformed churches in Scotland, which met on the invitation of the Church of Scotland.
Even when (as in the Shorter Westminster Catechism and the School Catechism) the Creed is simply printed as an appendix, or where (as in the Free Church Catechism) it is not mentioned at all, its substance is dealt with.
It may be noted that Sir Oliver Lodge has adopted the catechetical form in his book, The Substance of Faith Allied with Science (1907), which is described as " a catechism for parents and teachers."
Uytenbogaert gave them a catechism and regulated their churchly order.
At the time of the Reformation, the reformers, with their strong sense of the crucial importance of faith, emphasized the action of the individual in the service, and therefore laid it down as a rule that confirmation should be deferred till the child could learn a catechism on the fundamentals of the Christian faith, which Calvin thought he might do by the time he was ten.
In this Assembly he proposed that " a confession of faith, a catechism, a directory for all the parts of the public worship, and a platform of government, wherein possibly England and we might agree," should be drawn up. This was unanimously approved of, and the laborious undertaking was left in Henderson's hands; but the " notable motion " did not lead to any immediate results.
A moderate and judicious presbyterian, he prepared with others the " Shorter Catechism " in 1647, and was one of the" Triers," 1654.
In 1561 he was appointed professor in the Collegium Sapientiae at Heidelberg, where in 1563 at the instance of the elector-palatine, Frederick III., he drew up the Catechism in co-operation with Kaspar Olevian.
In addition to the translation of the Catechism, Paez is supposed to be the author of a treatise De Abyssinorum erroribus and a history of Ethiopia (ed.
This catechism has been called the charter of the German Reformed Church..
" We have, it is true, ventured to prepare a catechism, but we force it on no one; we express our opinions, but we coerce no one.
During the interval between the citation and the appearance of the accused, the professorial members of the synod was instructed to prepare themselves to be able to confute the Arminian errors, and the synod occupied itself with deliberations as to a new translation of the Bible, for which a commission was named, made arrangements for teaching the Heidelberg catechism, and granted permission to the missionaries of the East Indies to baptize such children of heathen parents as were admitted into their families.
He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith.
At Rakow in Poland was published the catechism of the Socinian doctrines in 1605.
CATECHISM (from Gr.
Offered to license the printing of the catechism, but, as the negotiations were broken off, this was not done.
The Shorter Catechism, after a brief introduction on the end, rule and essence of religion, is divided into two parts: - I.
There was no universal catechism published by the Latin Church before the council of Trent, but several provincial councils, e.g.
In Germany and Scotland (where Archbishop Hamilton's catechism appeared in 1552 and was ordered to be read in church by the parish priest), moved in self-defence along the lines already adopted by the reformers.
But the Roman Catholic Church as a whole has never had any one official catechism, each bishop being allowed to settle the matter for his own diocese.
The Wesleyan Methodist, has its catechism or catechisms,.
Geneva Catechism (1545) England.
Indulgentia, indulgere, to grant, concede), in theology, a term defined by the official catechism of the Roman Catholic Church in England as " the remission of the temporal punishment which often remains due to sin after its guilt has been forgiven."