The site selected for the great Nile dam was at the head of the First Cataract above Assuan.
This is the cataract near Adalia.
Close to the right bank is a sloping cataract 36 yds.
There are two important rapids and one cataract on the lower 300 m.
ASSUAN, or Aswan, a town of Upper Egypt on the east bank of the Nile, facing Elephantine Island below the First Cataract, and 590 m.
His sight, however, failed, and in 1811 he had an operation for cataract, which proved unsuccessful.
Three and a half miles above the town, at the beginning of the Cataract, the Assuan Dam stretches across the Nile.
Long, goes past the cataract region and ends at Stanley Pool, whence the Congo is navigable to Stanley Falls, a distance of 980 m.
Raided south Palestine and Ethiopia, and at Semna beyond the second cataract set up a stela of conquest that in its expressions recalls the stelae of Sesostris in Herodotus: Sesostris may, therefore, be the highly magnified portrait of this Pharaoh.
And the Nile shall cease to exist from the Lower Cataract downwards."
Similarly while the exploration of the Egyptian colonies south of the First Cataract has added many details to our knowledge of political history, of local cults and provincial organization, yet with one exception it has not affected the known outlines of the history of civilization.
He considered the horizontal strata of this hyperboloid as always in motion, while the remainder of the water was in a state of rest, and imagined that there was a kind of cataract in the middle of the fluid.
Alike in volume and in beauty these take a very high place among European waterfalls; the cataract has a total descent of about 650 ft., in three leaps of 65, 330 and 190 ft.
At the cataract) in 30 m, is manifestly a watercourse of very modern origin; for a large river would now have a thoroughly matured valley had it long followed its present course; the same is true of the St Lawrence, which in its several rapids and in its subdivision into many channels at the Thousand Islands, presents every sign of youth.
Between the Guaviare and the Meta the Orinoco is obstructed by the famous Maipures cataract, where, in several channels, it breaks.
By the treaty of 1872 the Brazilian frontier was drawn up the Parana from the mouth of the Iguassu or Y-Guazu (25° 30' S.) to the Salto Grande or Great Cataract of La Guayra (24° 7'), thence west along the watershed of the Sierra de Maracayu, north along the Sierra de Ambaya to the sources of the Apa, and down that stream to its junction with the Paraguay.
Above the town is the second cataract, and on the west bank of the Nile opposite Halfa are the ruins of the ancient Egyptian city of Buhen (Bohon).
Deepand Assuan (First Cataract), the course of the river is interrupted by outcrops of granites and other crystalline rocks, which have been uncovered by the, erosion of the overlying sandstone, and to-day form the mass of islands, with numerous small rapids, which are described not very accurately as cataracts; no good evidence exists in support of the view that they are the remains of a massive barrier, broken down and carried away by some sudden convulsion.
Farther south are the stupendous ruins of Thebes on both sides of the river, the temple of Esna, the ruins and tombs of El Kab, the temple of Edfu, the quarries of Silsila and the temple of Ombos, followed by the inscribed rocks of the First Cataract, the tombs and quarries of Assuan and the temples of Philae.
Egypt normally included the whole of the Nile valley from the First Cataract to the sea; pure Egyptians, however, formed the population of Lower Nubia above the Cataract in prehistori.c times; at some periods also the land was divided into separate kingdoms, while at others Egypt stretched southward into Nubia, and it generally claimed the neighboring Libyan deserts and oases on the west and the Arabian deserts on the east to the shore of the Red Sea, with Sinai and the Mediterranean coast as far as Rhinocorura (El Arish).
Red granite was obtained from the First Cataract, breccia and diorite were quarried from very early times in the Wadi Hammamat, on the road from Coptos to the Red Sea, and porphyry was brought, chiefly in Roman times but also in the prehistoric age, from the same region at Jebel Dokhn.
The Napo is navigable for steamboats for some distance above the mouth of the Coca, and thence for canoes as far as the Cando cataract, 3332 ft.
At the Shoshone Falls the river makes a sudden plunge of nearly 200 ft., and the Falls have been compared with the Niagara and Zambezi; a short distance back of the main fall is a cataract of 125 ft., the Bridal Veil.
Soon after his return to St Petersburg a cataract formed in his left eye, which ultimately deprived him almost entirely of sight.
Its lowest one, the Itaboca cataract, is about 130 m.
It marks also the end of the cataract region.
Opposite Hannek at the Third Cataract on Tombos Island are extensive ancient granite quarries, in one of which lies an unfinished colossus.
Of these the largest is the cataract of Niagara, about 1 m.
The largest of the lake ports is at Buffalo at the head of Niagara river, where, owing to the Niagara cataract, lake boats from the W.
Assuan (q.v.), pop. 12,618, is at the foot of the First Cataract and 551 m.
There are the forts and temples above the second cataract at Semna and Kumma.
South of the Cataract, within the Dodecaschoenus) were built under the Ptolemies.
The auditorium is little less perfect than that of Aspendus and very nearly as large; but the scena wall has collapsed over stage and proscenium in a cataract of loose blocks.
The fjords of the district include the imposing Beierenfjord, the Saltenfjord, and the Skjerstadfjord, at the narrow mouths of which, between islands, a remarkable cataract (Saltstrbm) is formed at the turn of the tide.
But, owing to the cataract, the main route for traffic with the south was by land along the eastern shore.
PHILAE, an islet in the Nile above the First Cataract, of great beauty and interest, but since the completion of the Assuan dam in 1902 submerged except for a few months yearly during High Nile (July to October), when the water is allowed to run freely through the sluices of the Assuan dam.
The natural geographical and ethnical southern frontier of Egypt is the First Cataract; Egyptian scribes of the Old Empire recognized this truth no less clearly than Diocletian, and Juvenal anticipates the verdict of every modern observer when he describes the " porta Syenes " as the gate of Africa.
- Ruins of pyramids, temples, churches and other monuments are found along both banks of the Nile almost as far south as the Fourth Cataract, and again in the " Island of Meroe."
Here the Nile narrows and passes the Semna cataract, and graven on the rocks are ancient records of " high Nile."
In his old age he was blinded by cataract, but recovered his eyesight by the operation of couching.
Dynasty at the Second Cataract an iron spearhead which is eight centuries older; dating from about 2000 B.C.5 Iron was in fact both worked and used sporadically long before the " Iron Age."
A successful operation for cataract restored his eyesight in June 1900, and notwithstanding his 81 years he resumed to some extent his former political activity.
He then supposed this cylindrical column of water to be divided into two parts, - the first, which he called the " cataract," being an hyperboloid generated by the revolution of an hyperbola of the fifth degree around the axis of the cylinder which should pass through the orifice, and the second the remainder of the water in the cylindrical vessel.
It may be taken to include the Nile valley from Assuan near the First Cataract southwards to the confluence of the White and Blue Niles, stretching in this direction for about 560 m.
Northern: Dialect of Bani Kenz or Mattokki, from the first cataract to Sebu` and Wadi al-`Arab, probably dating from the Diocletian period.
The destruction of the French fleet at the battle of the ~u~ Nile, and the failure of the French forces sent to Upper Egypt (where they reached the first cataract) to obtain possession of the person of Murd Bey, shook the faith of the Egyptians in their invincibility; and in consequence of a series of unwelcome innovations the relations between conquerors and conquered grew daily more strained, till at last, on the occasion of the introduction of a house tax, an insurrection broke out in.
He considered it necessary to hold Dongola, and he reported that he was distributing this army along the left bank of the Nile, on the open reach of water between the Hannek cataract and Abu Dom, opposite Merawi.
The railway up the right bank of the Nile was continued to Kerma, in order to evade the difficulties of the 3rd cataract; but the sirdar had conceived the bold project of cutting off the great angle of the Nile from Wadi Haifa to Abu Hamed, involving nearly 600 m.
Including the 4th cataract, by constructing a railway across the Nubian desert, and so bringing his base at Wadi Haifa within a few hours of his force, when it should have advanced to Abu Hamed, instead of ten days.
By the end of the month the gunboats had surmounted the 4th cataract and reached Abu Hamed.
Here is the great cataract of Itamaraca, which rushes down an inclined plane for 3 m.
This was the resolution adopted by the Egyptian government to extend the great reservoir at the First Cataract by raising the height of the Aswan dam.
At the left bank of the river is the Eastern Cataract, a millrace resembling the Leaping Water.
His kingdom consisted probably of Egypt only, as far as the First Cataract, but to this he added Cyprus, and his influence was great in Cyrene.
Some one throws himself over a cataract or leaps into the crater of a volcano, and immediately a score or two follow.
Among its characteristic features is a cataract fed by melting snows, which descends 1500 ft.