The Catalans, who had adopted the cause of Charles and who had grievances of their own, called in a succession of foreign pretenders.
Phison +barya L op felice Other Catalans are, Jahuda Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes (1413-1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439-1447) and Pietro Roselli, a pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462).
But the manner of the peacemaking, which had been carried on by a series of underhand conspiracies with the enemy instead of by open conferences with the allies, and was characterized throughout by a violation of the most solemn international assurances, left a deep and lasting stain upon the national honour and credit; and not less dishonourable was the abandonment of the Catalans by the treaty.
Though the city was united with the Catalans and with Venice in hostility to Genoa, and though it had chosen a Venetian, Alberto Morosini, as its Podesta, it received no help from either.
In purity of race the Aragonese are probably equal to the Castilians, to whom, rather than to the Catalans or Valencians, they are also allied in character.
But dissensions broke out between the Aragonese and Catalans and the Neapolitans, and Alphonso had Caracciolo arrested; whereupon Joanna, fearing for her own safety, invoked the aid of Sforza, who with difficulty carried her off to Aversa.
The islanders are a Spanish race, very closely akin to the Catalans; but the long period of Moorish rule has left its mark on their physical type and customs. In character they are industrious and hospitable, and pique themselves on their loyalty and orthodoxy.
They became a separate Moorish kingdom in 1009, which, becoming extremely obnoxious for piracy, was the object of a crusade directed against it by Pope Paschal II., in which the Catalans took the lead.
They make admirable soldiers and sailors, but lack the enterprise and commercial aptitude of the Basques and Catalans; while they are differentiated from the inhabitants of central and southern Spain by their superior industry, and perhaps their lower standard of culture.
The spinning and weaving of wool, cotton and silk are the principal industries, but the enterprising spirit of the Catalans has compelled them to try almost every industry in which native capital could attempt to compete with foreign, especially since the institution of the protectionist tariffs of 1892.
For the historic antagonism between the Catalans and the other inhabitants of Spain was strengthened by the industrial development of Barcelona.
Among the enterprising and shrewd Catalans, who look upon their rulers as reactionary, and reserve all their sympathies for the Provencal neighbours whom they so nearly resemble in race, language and temperament, French influence and republican ideals spread rapidly; taking the form partly of powerful labour and socialist organizations, partly of less reputable bodies, revolutionary and even anarchist.
His speeches and letters consist partly of declamations on the usual sophistical themes, partly deal with contemporary historical events: an argument between the fathers of Cynegirus and Callimachus (two Athenians who fell at Marathon) as to which had the better claim to have the funeral oration pronounced over him first; a discussion on the duties of; a king and of his subjects; a defence of the Byzantine general Chandrenos addressed to the emperor; a letter on the cruelties of the Catalans and Turks in Thessaly and Macedonia; a congratulatory letter to Theodorus Metochita; a panegyric on the king of Cyprus.
The Aragonese and Catalans, however, appealed to the pope, who forced Montfort to surrender him in May or June 1214.
In 1311 it was destroyed by the Catalans and passed out of history.
However, the protection granted to them was a mere sham, and the Catalans were soon the victims of the revenge of Philip of Spain.
Four of its Tory authors, Bolingbroke, Oxford, Ormonde and Strafford, were impeached for concluding it, the charges brought against them being that they had corresponded with the queen's enemies and had betrayed the honour and interest of their own country, while the abandonment of the Catalans was not forgotten.
A body of Catalans, under Roger Florus, established themselves here in 1306, and after the death of their leader massacred almost all the citizens; they were vainly besieged by the allied troops of Venice and the Empire, and withdrew in 1307, after dismantling the fortifications.
Spain occupies an unsurpassed geographical position; its resources are rich, varied and to some extent unexploited; its inhabitants include the Basques and Catalans, noted for their commercial enterprise, and the Galicians, noted for their industry.
Lower House: M mister,alists, 227; Conservatives, 105; Republicans, 42; Carlists, 9; Catalans, 7; Integrists, 2; Independents, ~ unattached, 3.
Even Murcia was peopled by Catalans in 1266, but this province really is part of the Castilian conquest, and accordingly the Castilian element took the upper hand and absorbed the dialect of the earlier colonists.
At the present day Gallego, which is simply Portuguese variously modified and with a development in some respects arrested, is much less important than Catalan, not only because the Spaniards who speak it (i,8oo,ooo) are fewer than the Catalans (3,500,000), but also because, its literary culture having been early abandoned in favor of Castilian, it fell into the vegetative condition of a provincial patois.
Aragonese, Catalans and Valencians werp N Li ~, as different as Galicians, Basques, Castilians and DIf Andalusians.
It is, however, noteworthy that Spanish capitalists are, as a class, though exclusive of the Catalans, unduly conservative Hence the capital for the establishment of electrical industries was almost exclusively subscribed in Germany, France, Belgium, Switzerland and the United States, just as, in the 19th century, the railways and mining industries had been mainly financed by British investors, and the Valencian silk industry by French.
The Catalans attained emancipation from feudal subjection by a successiori of savage peasant revolts in the 15th and 16th centuries.