He took the field against the Turks (1301, 1310) and against the Grand Catalan Company (1305), but was repeatedly defeated.
The race has probably suffered less here than in most parts of the Mediterranean basin from foreign intermixture, except for a few Catalan and Genoese settlements on the coast (Alghero and Carloforte are respectively the most important of these); and the population in general seems to have deteriorated slightly since prehistoric times, the average cranial capacity of the prehistoric skulls from the Anghelu Ruju being 1490 c.c. for males and 1308 for females, while among the modern population 60% of males and females together fall below 1250 c.c.; and the stature is generally lower than in other parts of Italy, as is shown by the measurements of the recruits (R.
In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI.
The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John had war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbour the French king till his death on the 20th of January 1479.
For the personal character of Peter III., the best witness is the Chronicle of Ramonde Muntanez - reprinted in the original Catalan by R.
Of Aragon, whose wife Constance was a daughter of Manfred, arrived in Sicily, and a Sicilian-Catalan fleet under the Calabrese admiral, Ruggiero di Lauria, completely destroyed that of Charles.
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
Phison +barya L op felice Other Catalans are, Jahuda Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes (1413-1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439-1447) and Pietro Roselli, a pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462).
21), of Giovanni Leardo (1448) and of a Catalan map of 1450.
Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author, discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula.
- Catalan Map of the World (1375).
23, Catalan Map of the World (1375).
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
The history and literature of Catalonia have been closely studied, and in many cases the results of research are published in the Catalan language.
The Revista catalana (Catalan Review), published at Barcelona from 1889, contains many valuable papers on local affairs.
But it was not till 1857 that he wrote his first poem in Catalan - a copy of verses to the Virgin of Montserrat.
Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism of Castile in which his Historia de Cataluna y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds.
Santa Maria is a fine example of Spanish Gothic, and consists, like many Catalan churches, of nave and chancel, aisles and ambulatory, without transepts.
Magnetites were also early employed, at first in Catalan forges, in which by means of a direct process the metal was secured from the ores and forged into blooms without being cast; later they were smelted in blast furnaces.
In 1346 a Catalan expedition started for "the river of gold" on the Guinea coast; its fate is unknown.
This prosperity has been in part due to the great development of means of communication around the city and in the four Catalan provinces.
The natural steps first of making it intentionally by putting such stones into his fire, and next of improving his fire by putting it and these stones into a cavity on the weather side of some bank with an opening towards the prevalent wind, would give a simple forge, differing only in size, in lacking forced blast, and in details of construction, from the Catalan forges and bloomaries of to-day.
If the kings of Sicily on this side the Pharos kept Corfu down to 1386, those beyond the Pharos became in 1311 overlords of Athens, when that duchy was seized by Catalan adventurers, disbanded after the wars of Sicily.
RAIMON or RAYMOND LULL (or LULLY), Raimon, (c. 1235-1315) Catalan author, mystic and missionary, was born at Palma (Majorca).
And as a poet Lull takes a prominent position in the history of Catalan literature; such pieces as El Desconort (1295) and Lo Cant de Ramon (1299) combine in a rare degree simple beauty of expression with sublimity of thought and impassioned sincerity.