Catalan being a variety of the langue doc, it will be convenient to note the peculiarities of its phonetics and inflexion as compared with ordinary Provenal, Tonic VowelsWith regard to a, which is pronounced alike in open and close syllables (amar, a m a r e; abre, a r b o r), there is nothing to remark.
Catalan, the substantives, adjectives and participles readily form their singular in a and their plural in Cs: arma,armes (an i ma, an i ma s);bona,bones (hon a, boo a s); amada, amades (a m at a, am a t a s).
In his old age he was engaged in incessant conflicts with his Aragonese and Catalan subjects, with Louis XI.
The Catalan revolt was pacified in 1472, but John had war, in which he was generally unfortunate, with his neighbour the French king till his death on the 20th of January 1479.
For the personal character of Peter III., the best witness is the Chronicle of Ramonde Muntanez - reprinted in the original Catalan by R.
Of Aragon, whose wife Constance was a daughter of Manfred, arrived in Sicily, and a Sicilian-Catalan fleet under the Calabrese admiral, Ruggiero di Lauria, completely destroyed that of Charles.
None of these maps was graduated, which is all the Mediterranean they embody materials available even in the days before Ptolemy, while the correct delineation of the west seems to be of a later date, and may have been due to Catalan seamen.
Phison +barya L op felice Other Catalans are, Jahuda Cresques, a Jew of Barcelona, the supposed author of the famous Catalan map of the world (1375), Guglielmo Solerio (1384), Mecia de Viladestes (1413-1433) Gabriel de Valleseche (1439-1447) and Pietro Roselli, a pupil of Beccario of Genoa (1462).
21), of Giovanni Leardo (1448) and of a Catalan map of 1450.
Very different in character is the Catalan map of 1375, for its author, discarding Ptolemy, shows India as a peninsula.
- Catalan Map of the World (1375).
23, Catalan Map of the World (1375).
It has been translated into Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Welsh, Polish, Gaelic, Russian, Bohemian, Dutch, Catalan, Chinese, modern Greek and phonetic writing.
The history and literature of Catalonia have been closely studied, and in many cases the results of research are published in the Catalan language.
The Revista catalana (Catalan Review), published at Barcelona from 1889, contains many valuable papers on local affairs.
But it was not till 1857 that he wrote his first poem in Catalan - a copy of verses to the Virgin of Montserrat.
Long before his death he had become alienated from the advanced school of Catalan nationalists, and endeavoured to explain away the severe criticism of Castile in which his Historia de Cataluna y de la Corona de Aragon (1860-1863) abounds.
Santa Maria is a fine example of Spanish Gothic, and consists, like many Catalan churches, of nave and chancel, aisles and ambulatory, without transepts.
Magnetites were also early employed, at first in Catalan forges, in which by means of a direct process the metal was secured from the ores and forged into blooms without being cast; later they were smelted in blast furnaces.
In 1346 a Catalan expedition started for "the river of gold" on the Guinea coast; its fate is unknown.
This prosperity has been in part due to the great development of means of communication around the city and in the four Catalan provinces.
The natural steps first of making it intentionally by putting such stones into his fire, and next of improving his fire by putting it and these stones into a cavity on the weather side of some bank with an opening towards the prevalent wind, would give a simple forge, differing only in size, in lacking forced blast, and in details of construction, from the Catalan forges and bloomaries of to-day.
If the kings of Sicily on this side the Pharos kept Corfu down to 1386, those beyond the Pharos became in 1311 overlords of Athens, when that duchy was seized by Catalan adventurers, disbanded after the wars of Sicily.
RAIMON or RAYMOND LULL (or LULLY), Raimon, (c. 1235-1315) Catalan author, mystic and missionary, was born at Palma (Majorca).
And as a poet Lull takes a prominent position in the history of Catalan literature; such pieces as El Desconort (1295) and Lo Cant de Ramon (1299) combine in a rare degree simple beauty of expression with sublimity of thought and impassioned sincerity.
Apart from the wealthier landowners, who speak French fluently, and send their children to be educated in France, they use the Catalan dialect of Spanish.
Netherlands to the Austrian claimant, accomplished all that could reasonably be desired, though the abandonment to the vengeance of the Spanish government of her Catalan allies, and the base desertion of her continental confederates on the very field of action, brought dishonour on the good name of England.
DAVID GLASGOW FARRAGUT (1801-1870), first admiral of the United States navy, was the son of Major George Farragut, a Catalan by descent, a Minorquin by birth, who had emigrated to America in 1776, and, after the peace, had married a lady of Scottish family and settled near Knoxville, in Tennessee; there Farragut was born on the 5th of July 1801.
His adventurers (known as the Catalan Grand Company) declared war upon Andronicus, and, after devastating Thrace and Macedonia, conquered the duchy of Athens and Thebes.
Silvela endeavoured to unite in what he styled a Modern Conservative party the bulk of the followers of Canovas; the Ultramontanes, who were headed by General Polavieja and Seor Pidal; the Catalan Regionalists, whose leader, Duran y Bas, became a cabinet minister; and his own personal following, of whom the most prominent were the home secretary, Seor Dato, and the talented and energetic finance minister, Seor Villaverde, upon whose shoulders rested the heaviest part of the task of the new cabinet.
The spark was put to the powder by the action of the war minister, General Linares, in proposing to organize a new field force by calling out the Catalan reserves.
Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.
If a given province now speaks Catalan rather than Castilian, the explanation is to be sought simply and solely in the fact that it was conquered by a king of Aragon and peopled by his Catalan subjects.
Catalan.This domain now embraces, on the mainland, the Spanish provinces of Gerona.
Catalan, by its most characteristic features, belongs to the Romance of southern France and not to that of Spain; it is legitimate, therefore, to regard it as imported into Spain by those His pani whom the Arab conquest had driven back beyond the mountains into Languedoc, and who in the 9th century regained the country of their origin; this conclusion is confirmed by the fact that the dialect is also that of two French provinces on the north of the PyreneesRoussillon and Cerdagne.
The river Segura, which falls into the Mediterranean in the neighborhood of Orihuela, a little to the north of Murcia, is as nearly as possible the southern boundary of the Catalan domain; westward the boundary coincides pretty exactly with the political frontier, the provinces of New Castile and Aragon not being at all encroached on.
Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchyalthough the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speechestablished a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz, in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Aighero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
Afterwards, and especially in these parts of the Catalan domain outside of Catalonia which did not acknowledge that they derived their language from that province, Lesnosi received a more extensive signification, so as to mean the literary language in general, whether of verse or of prose.
The principal features which connect Catalan with the Romance of France and separate it from that of Spain are the following:
All the proparoxytones of modern Catalan are of recent introduction and due to Castilian influence.
Further, the only post-tonic Latin vowel preserved ~y the Catalan is, as in Gallo-Roman, a: mare gives mar, gratu (s) gives grat, but anima gives arma; and, when the word terminates in a group of consonants requiring a supporting vowel, that vowel is represented by an e:
It is not to be supposed that the separation of Catalan from the Gallo-Roman family occurred before the transformation had taken place; there is good reason to believe that Catalan possessed the it at one time, but afterwards lost it in its contact with the Spanish dialects.
On this point Catalan is more hesitating than Provenal; it does not distinguish so clearly the pronunciation of e according to its origin; while e (1) is capable of yielding an open e, the is often pronounced close, and the poets have no difficulty in making words in e close and in e open rhyme together, which is not the case in.
The Latin never yields ie in Catalan as it does in French and occasionally in Provenal; s e d e t becomes seu (where u represents the final d), p e d e m makes peu, and e go eu; in some words where the tonic is followed by a syllable in which an i occurs, it may become I (ir, he r i; mig, me di us; m-,is, m eli us); and the same holds good for in a similar situation (ciri, c r i u s, c e r e u s; fire, f e r i a), and for e in a close syllable before a nasal (eximpli, e x e to p 1 u m; mintr for mentir, gint for gent).
0 short is never diphthongized into uo or ue; such a treatment is as foreign to Catalan as the diphthongization of into ie.
After the tonic ue often becomes a in the Catalan of the mainland (ayga, a q u a, llenga, I in g u a), while in Majorca it becomes o (ay~o, lien go).
Stj and sc befor e and i, as well as x and ~s, yield the sound sh, represented in Catalan by x (angoxa, a n g u s t i a; coneixer, cognoscere; dix, dixit; nialelx, metipse).
In the larger portion of the Catalan domain this 1 mouilie has become y.
Inflexion.Catalan, unlike Old Provenal and Old French, has never bad declensions.
Catalan, then, makes no distinctions save in the gender and the number of its nouns.
ConjugationC at alan, and especially modern Catalan, has greatly narrowed the domain of the 2nd conjugation in e r e; a large number of verbs of this conjugation have been treated as if they belonged to the 3rd in r e; d e b e r e makes deure, v i d e r e, veure, and alongside of haber, which answers to h a b b r e, there is a form heure which points to h a b ~ r e.
A curious fact, and one which has arisen since the 15th century, is the addition of a paragogic C to those infinitives which are accentedon the radical; in a portion of the Catalan domain one hears creurer, veurer.
In the gerundive and in the present participle Catalan differs from Provenal in still distinguishing the conjugation in it from that in Cr, resaying, for exampIe~ senhint.
And -din the 3rd; alongside of the -d, whieh is proper to Catalan exclusively, we also find, in the first period of the language, -et as in Provenal.
In spoken Catalan is that in -i for all the three conjugations (ami, -is, -i, -em, -Cu -in; hems, -is, &c.; senti, -is, &c); it appears to be an abbreviation from -ia, and in effect certain subjunctives, such as cdntia, timia, tinguia, vinguia (for cante, tema, tinga, vingia), evidently formed upon sia (subj.
Cabalan Dialect of Aighero (Sardinia).As compared with that of the mainland, the Catalan of Alghero, introduced into this portion of Sardinia by the Aragonese conquerors and colonists, does not present any very important differences; some of them, such as they are, are explicable by the influence of the indigenous dialects of Sassari and Logudoro.
In phonetics one observes(i) the change of lj into y as an initial before i (yitx, yigis; lego, legis), a change which does not take place in the Catalan of the mainland except in the interior, or at the end of the word; (2) the frequent change of 1 between vowels and of I after c, g, f, p or b into r (taura tabula; candera, candela; sangrol, sin gultum; frama, flama).