In the instructions drawn up, shortly before his death, for his guidance at Verona, Castlereagh had stated the possibility of the necessity for recognizing the Greeks as belligerents if the war continued.
He notes that at the congress of Vienna he received 22,000 florins through Talleyrand from Louis XVIII., while Castlereagh gave him £600, accompanied by les plus folks and his diary is full of such entries.
And his ministers made any such solution impossible, and, before the meeting of the congress of Verona, in 1822, Castlereagh had realized the eventual necessity of recognizing the independence of the South American states.
The visit of the allied sovereigns to England and the pressing engagements of the emperor Alexander and Lord Castlereagh delayed the congress until the autumn, when all Europe sent its representatives to accept the hospitality of the impoverished but magnificent Austrian court.
Great Britain was represented by Lord Castlereagh, and under him were the British diplomats who had been attached to the foreign armies since 1813, Clancarty, Stewart and Cathcart.
Castlereagh brought with him decided views, which however were not altogether those of his cabinet, and his position was weakened by the fact that Great Britain was still at war with the United States, and that public opinion at home cared for little but the abolition of the slave trade.
When parliamentary duties called Castlereagh home in.
It was Castlereagh that led the opposition to these almost peremptory demands of Alexander.
For Austria Saxony was really of more vital interest than Poland, but Castlereagh, despite a vigorous resistance from a section of the Austrian court, was able to win Metternich over to his views.
Against Castlereagh he entered the lists personally, and memorandum after memorandum was exchanged.
Despite the warning letters of the British cabinet which, dismayed at the long continuance of the American War, counselled caution on a question in which England had no immediate interest, Castlereagh yielded no inch of his ground.
As Castlereagh and Metternich began to regard the position as hopeless they began to look upon him as a possible ally.
But Castlereagh saw that war could only be avoided if one party was made stronger than the other.
He came boldly to the front in the middle of December as the champion of Saxony; and, as Russia and Prussia were still obstinate, Metternich and Castlereagh demanded the admission of France to the secret council.
Castlereagh had left Vienna with the hope that the powers would solemnly guarantee their territorial settlement and promise to make collective war on whoever dared to disturb it.
In the solution of this problem the common sense of Wellington and of Castlereagh, with whom the duke worked throughout in complete harmony, played a determining part; it was mainly owing to their influence that France escaped the dismemberment for which the German powers clamoured, and which was advocated for a while by Lord Liverpool and the majority of the British cabinet.
He was consulted, moreover, in all matters of international importance, notably the affairs of the Spanish colonies, in which he associated himself with Castlereagh in pressing those views which were afterwards carried into effect by George Canning.
Castlereagh, August, &c., 1815).
To Castlereagh he wrote (December 11, 1816) that although he believed that the common people of the departments occupied,"particularly those occupied by us," were delighted to have the troops and the money spent among them, among the official and middle classes the feeling was very different.
2 See the interesting letter of Lord Castlereagh to Lord Liverpool preserved in the Foreign Office Records (Congress; Paris; Viscount Castlereagh, July 7-20, 1815), dated July 8, 1815.
It was only in 1822, however, that the tragic death of his friend Londonderry (Castlereagh) brought.
On his death-bed he spoke generously of Castlereagh, and with warm eulogy of his former rival, Flood.
With special reference to the Union see Castlereagh Correspondence; Cornwallis Correspondence; Westmorland Papers (Irish State Paper Office).
This is perhaps as good an apology as could be made for his character and 1 In his report on the Ionian Treaty presented to Lord Castlereagh at the congress of Vienna in December 1814, Sir Richard Church strongly advocated, not only the retention of Parga, but that Vonitza, Prevesa and Butrinto also should be taken from Ali Pasha and placed under British protection, a measure he considered necessary for the safety of the Ionian Islands.
Castlereagh, writing of him to Lord Liverpool, gives him credit for " grand qualities," but adds that he is "suspicious and undecided."
Castlereagh, whose single-minded aim was the restoration of "a just equilibrium" in Europe, reproached the tsar to his face for a " conscience " which suffered him to imperil the concert of the powers by keeping his hold on Poland in violation of his treaty obligation.'
6 He still declared his belief in " free institutions, though not in such as are forced from feebleness, nor contracts ordered by popular leaders from their Castlereagh to Liverpool, Oct.
Prepared by order of the Tsar, July 16, 1815, enclosed in Castlereagh to Liverpool, F.O.
Congress Paris, Castlereagh, 22.
De Martens, Recueil des traites conclus par la Russie, &c. (St Petersb., 1874, &c.); Wellington Despatches; Castlereagh Correspondence; Prince Adam Czartoryski, Memoires et correspondance avec l'empereur Alexandre I.
Castlereagh, in the name of Great Britain, had cordially approved this invitation, as "implying negotiation" and therefore as a retreat from the position taken up in the Troppau Protocol.
Against this view Castlereagh once more protested in a circular despatch of the 19th of January 1821, in which he clearly differentiated between the objectionable general principles advanced by the three powers, and the particular case of the unrest in Italy, the immediate concern not of Europe at large, but of Austria and of any other Italian powers which might consider themselves endangered (Hertslet, No.
Hertslet, Map of Europe (London, 1875);, Castlereagh, Correspondence; Metternich, Memoirs; N.
Those on the right bank all come from Queensland and bring down enormous volumes of water in flood time; on the left bank the most important tributaries are the Gwydir, Namoi, Castlereagh, Bogan and Macquarie.
In April of 1809 he had told the duke of Portland that Lord Castlereagh, secretary for the colonies and war, was in his opinion unfit for his post, and must be removed to another office.
The duke, a sickly and vacillating man, said nothing to Castlereagh, and took no steps, and Canning did not enlighten his colleague.
Castlereagh then learnt the truth, and after resigning sent Canning a challenge on the 19th of September.
Have endeavoured to defend him against the charge of double dealing, but there can be no question that Castlereagh had just ground to be angry.
In 1816 he submitted to enter office as president of the Board of Control in Lord Liverpool's cabinet, in which Castlereagh, to whom he had now become reconciled, was secretary of state for foreign affairs.
Canning's return to great office and influence dates from the suicide of Castlereagh in 1822.
He had accepted the governorgeneralship of India, which would have implied his retirement from public life at home, and refused to remain unless he was promised "the whole inheritance" of Castlereagh, - the foreign office and the leadership of the House of Commons.
Even before this he was the real director of the policy of the cabinet - as Castlereagh had been from 1812 to 1822.
Of the members of the late government Lord Eldon, the duke of Portland, Lord Westmorland, Lord Castlereagh and ret,4IrnS Lord Hawkesbury retained office, the latter surrendering the foreign office to Lord Harrowby and going to the home office.
It had to face the same Whig opposition, led by Fox, who scoffed at the French peril, and reinforced by Addington and his friends; and the whole burden of meeting this opposition fell upon Pitt; for Castlereagh, the only other member of the cabinet in the House of Commons, was of little use in debate.
The new ministry, under the nominal headship of the valetudinarian duke of Portland, included Perceval as chancellor of the exchequer, Canning as foreign secretary and Castlereagh as secretary for war and the colonies.
While Lord Liverpool, with Palmerston as his undersecretary, succeeded Castlereagh at the war office.
Canning, however, refused to serve with Castlereagh as minister of war, and the latter received the foreign office, which he was to hold till his death in 1822.
The tendency of Metternichs ~systern had long been growing distasteful to Castlereagh, who had consistently protested against the attempt to constitute the Grand Alliance general police of Europe and had specially protested against the Carlsbad Decrees (q.v.).
This policy had been foreshadowed in the instructions drawn up by Castlereagh for his own guidance at Verona; but Canning succeeded in giving it a popular and national color and thus removing from the government all suspicion of sympathy with the reactionary spirit of the Holy Alliance.
(London, 1872-74); Castlereagh Correspondence, i., ii.; Cornwallis Correspondence, ii., iii.