Some samples of ore, coal and limestone, obtained in the Mittagong district, with pig-iron and castings manufactured therefrom, were exhibited at the Mining Exhibition in London and obtained a first award.
Sharp to indicate a stage in the life-history of an insect between two successive castings of the cuticle.
His grandfather had obtained from Venice an " artist " who undertook " to build churches and palaces, to cast big bells and cannons, to fire off the said cannons and to make every sort of castings very cunningly "; and with the aid of that clever Venetian he had become the proud possessor of a " cannon-house," subsequently dignified with the name of " arsenal."
During post-embryonic development - no insect being hatched with the smallest external rudiments of those organs - and on the necessity for successive castings or " moults " (ecdyses) of the cuticle.
Among the manufactures are charcoal, pig-iron, car wheels and general castings at Lime Rock, cutlery at Lakeville, and knife-handles and rubber brushes at Salisbury.
1 During the twelve years that followed Morse was engaged in a painful struggle to perfect his invention and secure for it a proper presentation to the public. In poverty he pursued his new enterprise, making his own models, moulds and castings, denying himself the common necessaries of life.
Among the manufactures are rubber goods, chemicals, iron castings, woollen goods, cutlery, &c. The value of the factory products increased from $8,886,676 in 1900 to $11,009,573 in 1905, or 23.9%.
They are frequently stated to be of beaten bronze, but they are really castings, apparently by the cire perdue process.
Japanese bronze is well suited for castings, not only because of its low melting-point, great fluidity and capacity for taking sharp impressions, but also because it has a particularly smooth surface and readily develops a fine patina.
But for very large castings the process had to be modified.
It has important iron and steel works and iron foundries, at which armour-plates, guns and projectiles are made for the Italian navy, also steel castings, machinery and rails, a royal arms factory, and lignite mining.
It has therefore been proposed, for greater depths, to put four columns of tubbings of smaller diameters, 82 and 52 ft., in the shaft, and fill up the remainder of the boring with concrete, so that with thinner and lighter castings a greater depth may be reached.
1877), two similar castings, A and B, each consisting.
The top flange consisted of cast iron hollow castings butted end to end, and the struts were of cast iron.
Hitherto it had been felt as a great difficulty in casting specula that the solidification did not begin at one surface and proceed gradually to the other, the common sand mould allowing the edges to cool first, so that the central parts were subject to great straining when their time of cooling came, and in large castings this generally caused cracking.
Specifically, it is cast iron in the form of castings other than pigs, or remelted cast iron suitable for such castings, as distinguished from pig iron, i.e.
Thus ornamental iron castings were made in Sussex in the 14th century, and in the 16th cannons weighing three tons each were cast.
In making malleable castings the annealing, i.e.
The castings, initially of white cast iron, are heated for about a week, to a temperature usually above 730° C. and often reaching 900° C. (1346° and 1652° F.).
The molecular freedom which this high temperature gives enables the cementite to change gradually into a mixture of graphite and austenite with the result that, after the castings have been cooled and their austenite has in cooling past Aci changed into pearlite and ferrite, the mixture of cementite and pearlite of which they originally consisted has now given place to one of fine or " temper " graphite and ferrite, with more or less pearlite according to the completeness of the transfer of the carbon to the state of graphite.
In carrying out this process the castings are packed in a mass of iron oxide, which at this temperature gradually removes the fine or " temper " graphite by oxidizing that in the outer crust to carbonic oxide, whereon the carbon farther in begins diffusing outwards by " molecular migration," to be itself oxidized on reaching the crust.
Steel castings have initially the extremely coarse structure due to cooling without mechanical distortion from their very high temperature of solidification; they are " annealed," i.e.
6, and then cast into castings of cast iron, or converted into wrought iron or steel by purifying it, following path 2.
If it is to follow path r the castings into which it is made may be either (a) grey or (b) chiiied or (c) malleable.
Grey iron castings are made by remelting the pig iron either in a small shaft of " cupola " furnace, or in a reverberatory or " air " furnace, with very little change of chemical composition, and then casting it directly into suitable moulds, usually of either " baked," i.e.
The general procedure in the manufacture of chilled and of malleable castings has been described in §§ 30 and 31.
Indeed, the remelting of cast iron to make grey iron castings belongs here.
In the former case there is no later chance to remove sulphur, a minute quantity of which does great harm by leading to the formation of cementite instead of graphite and ferrite, and thus making the cast-iron castings too hard to be cut to exact shape with steel tools; in the latter case the converting or purifying processes, which are essentially oxidizing ones, though they remove the other impurities, carbon, silicon, phosphorus and manganese, are not well adapted to desulphurizing, which needs rather deoxidizing conditions, so as to cause the formation of calcium sulphide, than oxidizing ones.
This has been particularly true in the manufacture of steel castings, i.e.
For making castings, especially those which are so thin and intricate that, in order that the molten steel may remain molten long enough to run into the thin parts of the mould, it must be heated initially very far above its melting-point, the Bessemer process has a very great advantage in that it can develop a much higher temperature than is attainable in either of its competitors, the crucible and the openhearth processes.
Charges in closed crucibles, and then casting it into ingots or other castings, though in addition the metal while melting may be carburized.
Among the manufactures of the borough of Bristol are clocks, woollen goods, iron castings, hardware, brass ware, silverplate and bells.
Among Amesbury's manufactures are hats, cotton goods, carriages, automobile bodies, carriage and automobile lamps, thermometers, brass castings and 'motor boats.
These occluded gases are all liberated when the copper cools, and so give rise to porous castings, unless special precautions are taken.
Among the manufactures of Alliance are structural iron, steel castings, pressed sheet steel, gun carriages, boilers, travelling cranes, pipe organs, street-car indicators, sashes and doors, and account registers and other material for file and cabinet-bookkeeping.
South Bethlehem is the see of a Protestant Episcopal bishop. The Bethlehem Steel Company manufactures here iron and steel, including Bessemer steels, armour plate, steel rails, government ordnance, drop forgings, iron and steel castings, stationary engines, gas engines, hydraulic pumps, projectiles, steel shaft and pig iron; zinc is smelted and refined; and there are large hosiery and knitting mills, and silk mills and cigar factories.
In the former case, the first reaction is produced in castiron pans or " pots," very heavy castings of circular section, fired from below, either directly or by the waste heat from the mufflefurnace.
This has passed through three stages, the first being represented by solid castings, such as are most celts and other implements of the prehistoric time; the mould was formed of clay, sand or stone, and the fluid metal was poured in till the hollow was full.
Repousse), was probably adopted for bronze-work on a large scale before the art of forming large castings was discovered.
With increased skill in large castings, and the discovery of the use of cores, by which the fluid bronze was poured into a mere skin-like cavity, hammered or repousse work was only used in the case of small objects in which lightness was desirable, or for the precious metals in order to avoid large expenditure of metal.
The after-treatment of castings by annealing exercises great influence on results in malleable cast iron and steel.
Steel intended for castings has slightly more carbon and other elements than the cast-steel ingot intended for rolling into plates.