For the history, see Rivadeneyra, "Cronicas de los reyes de Castilla," Biblioteca de autores espanoles, vols.
They were developed commercially during the administration (1845-1851) of President Ramon Castilla, at the same time that the nitrate deposits of Tarapaca became a commercial asset of the republic. The large revenues derived from these sources undoubtedly became a cause ofweakness and demoralization and eventually resulted in bankruptcy and the loss of Tarapaca.
An exception must be made of the administration of General Ramon Castilla, who restored peace to Peru, and showed himself to be an honest and very capable ruler.
After a regular term of office of six years of peace and moral and material progress Castilla resigned, and General Jose Echenique was elected president.
But the proceedings of Echenique's government in connexion with the consolidation of the internal debt were disapproved by the nation, and, after hostilities which lasted for six months, Castilla returned to power in January 1855.
Castilla retired at the end of his term of office in 1862, and died in 1868.
In 1860 Castilla made him director of public works, in which capacity he superintended the erection of the Lima statue of Bolivar.
CASTILE, or Castille (Castilla), an ancient kingdom of Spain, occupying the central districts of the Iberian Peninsula; and bounded on the N.
The northern part of the kingdom, which was first freed from Moorish rule, is called Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja); the southern, acquired later, is called New Castile (Castilla la Nueva).
For a general description of Castile and its inhabitants, antiquities, commerce, &c., see Castilla la Nueva, three illustrated volumes in the series Espana, by J.
De la Fuente (Barcelona, 1885-1886), and the Guia del antiguo reino de Castilla, by E.Valverde y Alvarez (Madrid, 1886), which deals with the provinces of Burgos, Santander, Logrono, Soria, Avila and Segovia.
For the history, see in addition to the works cited under Spain (section History), Cronicas de los reyes de Castilla, by C. Rosell (Madrid, 1875-1877, 2 vols.); Coleccion de las cronicas y memorias de los reyes de Castilla (Madrid, 1 7791787, 7 vols.); and Historia de las communidades de Castilla (Madrid, 1897).
The famous code known as the Ordenamiento Real de Alcald, or Fuero Viejo de Castilla, dates from a still later period.
Among the numerous works that more or less expressly deal with this subject, that of Marina (Ensayo historico-critico sobre la antigua legislacion y principales cuerpos legales de los reynos de Leon y Castilla) still continues to hold a high place.
Be made to Colmeiro's Curso de derecho politico segun la historic de Leon y de Castilla (Madrid, 1873); to Schafer's Geschichte von Spanien, ii.
The chief point of interest in his account is that he speaks of the species having been already taken from New Spain (Mexico) to the islands and to Castilla del Oro (Darien), where it bred in a domestic state among the Christians.