On the death of the queen in 1504 her son-in-law claimed the regency, and was supported by the Castilian nobles.
He also helped her in quieting Ferdinand, who was chafing under the privileges of the Castilian grandees, and succeeded so well that the king also took him as confessor.
The Cid of history, though falling short of the poetical ideal which the patriotism of his countrymen has so long cherished, is still the foremost man of the heroical period of Spain - the greatest warrior produced out of the long struggle between Christian and Moslem, and the perfect type of the Castilian of the 12th century.
The extinction of the western caliphate and the dispersion of the once noble heritage of the Ommayads into numerous petty independent states, had taken place some thirty years previously, so that Castilian and Moslem were once again upon equal terms, the country being almost equally divided between them.
These were a Castilian translation of The Life of Christ by Ludolphus of Saxony, and the popular Flowers of the Saints, a series of pious biographies.
By special command of Raimund, archbishop of Toledo, the chief of these works were translated from the Arabic through the Castilian into Latin by the archdeacon Dominicus Gonzalvi with the aid of Johannes Avendeath (=ben David), a converted Jew, about 1150.
He had to surrender to Sucre at the final battle of Ayacucho, which put an end to Castilian rule.
Germanus, a brother), a Castilian word meaning, strictly speaking, a brotherhood.
The last year of his travels was spent in Spain, where he obtained a thorough knowledge of the Castilian language and literature.
Castilian is spoken by the upper and commercial classes; the lower and agricultural employ a dialect resembling that of the Catalans.
The moral influence of the queen's personal character over the Castilian court was incalculably great; from the debasement and degradation of the preceding reign she raised it to being "the nursery of virtue and of generous ambition."
Of Castile, was the natural son of Alvaro de Luna, a Castilian noble.
Until he lost the king's protection he was the central figure of the Castilian history of the time.
Of Aragon:(1416-1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, who represented the old line of the counts of Barcelona only through women, and was on his father's side descended from the Castilian house of Trastamara, is one of the most conspicuous figures of the early Renaissance.
Owing to their almost entire immunity from any alien domination except that of the Romans and Goths, the Asturians may perhaps be regarded as the purest representatives of the Iberian race; while their dialect (linguaje bable) is sometimes held to be closely akin to the parent speech from which modern Castilian is derived.
It is free from Moorish idioms, and, like Galician and Portuguese, it often retains the original Latin f which Castilian changes into h.
In physique, the Asturians are like the Galicians, a people of hardy mountaineers and fishermen, finely built, but rarely handsome, and with none of the grace of the Castilian or Andalusian.
The normal Castilian landscape is an arid and sterile steppe, with scarcely a tree or spring of water; and many even of the villages afford no relief to the eye, for they are built of sunburnt unbaked bricks, which share the dusty brownish-grey tint of the soil.
Castilian, which is the literary language of Spain, and with certain differences, of Spanish America, is spoken in Old and New Castile, Aragon, Estremadura, and the greater part of Leon; in Andalusia it is subject to various modifications of accent and pronunciation.
As there is little, if any, difference of racial origin, character and physical type, among the inhabitants of this region, except in Andalusia, and, to a less extent, in Estremadura, the Castilian is justly regarded as the typical Spaniard.
Among the Castilian peasantry, where education and foreign influence have never penetrated deeply, the national character can best be studied.
Of the two great Spanish universities, Alcala de Henares belonged in all respects to Castile, and Salamanca rose to equality with Paris, Oxford or Bologna, under the purely Castilian influence of Alphonso X.
The Castilian use of the word in the sense of a right, privilege or charter is most probably to be traced to the Roman conventus juridici, otherwise known as jurisdictiones or fora, which in Pliny's time were already numerous in the Iberian peninsula.
(1118) and succeeding sovereigns, was used as a basis for many other Castilian fueros.
While actually owning the lordship of the Castilian crown since about the middle of the 14th century, these provinces rigidly insisted upon.
The citizens attributed their misfortunes to the "Castilian" government, and a strong party anong them favoured annexation by France.
He published Pike County Ballads (1871) - the most famous being "Little Breeches" - a volume worthy to rank with Bret Harte, if not with the Lowell of the Bigelow Papers; Castilian Days (1871), recording his observations in Spain; and a volume of Poems (1890); with John G.
Alphonso of Leon considered himself tricked, and the young king had to begin his reign by a war against his father and a faction of the Castilian nobles.
His own ability and the remarkable capacity of his mother proved too much for the king of Leon and his Castilian allies.
This famous romance of chivalry survives only in a Castilian text, but it is claimed by Portugal as well as by Spain.
The number of these "ancient originals" is not stated, nor is there any mention of the language in which they were composed; Montalvo's silence on the latter point might be taken to imply that they were in Castilian, but any such inference would be hazardous.
Not to speak of the Basque, which still forms an island of some importance in the north-west, three Romance languages share this extensive territory: (1) Portuguese-Galician, spoken in Portugal, Galicia, and a small portion of the province of Leon; (2) Castilian, covering about two-thirds of the Peninsula in the north, centre, and south; (3) Catalan, occupying a long strip of territory to the east and south-east.
If a given province now speaks Catalan rather than Castilian, the explanation is to be sought simply and solely in the fact that it was conquered by a king of Aragon and peopled by his Catalan subjects.
Even Murcia was peopled by Catalans in 1266, but this province really is part of the Castilian conquest, and accordingly the Castilian element took the upper hand and absorbed the dialect of the earlier colonists.
Catalan, which by the reunion of Aragon and the countship of Barcelona in 1137 became the official language of the Aragonese monarchyalthough the kingdom of Aragon, consisting of the present provinces of Saragossa, Huesca and Teruel, has always been Castilian in speechestablished a footing in Italy also, in all parts where the domination of the kings of Aragon extended, viz, in Sicily, Naples, Corsica and Sardinia, but it has not maintained itself here except in a single district of the last-named island (Aighero); everywhere else in Italy, where it was not spoken except by the conquerors, nor written except in the royal chancery, it has disappeared without leaving a trace.
All the proparoxytones of modern Catalan are of recent introduction and due to Castilian influence.
(2) As regards conjugation only two points need be noted here: (a) it employs the form known as the inchoative, that is to say, the lengthening of the radical of the present in verbs of the third conjugation by means of the syllable ex or ix, a proceeding common to Italian, Walachian, Provenal and French, but altogether unknown in Hispanic Romance; (b) the formation of a great number of past participles in which the termination is added; as in Provenal, not to the radical of the verb, but to that of the perfect: tingut from tinch, pogut from poch, conegut from conech, while in Castilian tenido (formerly also tenudo), podido, conocido, are participles formed from the infinitive.
As for features common to C~talan and Hispanic (Castilian and Portuguese) Romance, on the other hand, and which are unknown to French Romance, only one is of importance; the conservation, namely, of the Latin u with its original sound, while the same vowel has assumed in French and ProvencaI~
The Mozbrabes brought in the large Arabic element, which is one of the features of the Castilian language.
Or Castilian translation of the seniores and senatores, potentiore~ and possessores of the Visigoth councils and code.
In 1591 the support given by the Aragonese to Antonio Perez led to the invasion of their country by a Castilian army.
The political as well as the administrative life of the country was absolutely in the hands of the wire-pullers in Madrid; and their local agents, the governors, the mayors and the electoral potentates styled los Caciques, were all creatures of the minister of the interior at the head of Castilian centralization.