Portugal Portugal could long boast of only one review, the Jornal enciclopedico (1779-1806), which had many interruptions; then came the Jornal de Coimbra (1812-1820); the Panorama (1836-1857), founded by Herculano; the Revista universal lisbonense (1841-1853), established by Castilho; the Instituto (1853) of Coimbra; the Archivo pittoresco (1857) of Lisbon; and the Jornal do sociedade dos amigos das letteras.
De Castilho (q.v.), whose most conspicuous followers were Joao de Lemos and the poets of the collection entitled 0 Trovador; Soares de Passos, a singer for the sad; the melodious Thomas Ribeiro, who drew his inspiration from Zorilla and voiced the opposition to a political union with Spain in the patriotic poem D.
Its immediate cause was the preface which Castilho contributed to the poem Mogidade of Pinheiro Chagas, and it proclaimed the alliance of poetry with philosophy.
The younger men of letters regarded Castilho as the self-elected pontiff of a mutual-praise school, who, ignorant of the literary movement abroad, claimed to direct them in the old paths, and would not tolerate criticism.