Sivaji and his fighting officers were Mahrattas of humble caste, but his ministers were Brahmans.
The object of this ceremony is to abolish caste distinctions.
The Mahratta Brahmans possess, in an intense degree, the qualities of that famous caste, physical, intellectual and moral.
All who die within this boundary, be they Brahman or low caste, Moslem or Christian, are sure of admittance into Siva's heaven.
Up to this time Protestant missions in India had been successful only in reaching low-caste and outcaste peoples, particularly in Tinevelly and south Travancore.
They have no caste distinctions but speak of themselves as belonging to one of nine septs or clans, who all eat together and intermarry with each other.
LEVITES, or sons of Levi (son of Jacob by Leah), a sacred caste in ancient Israel, the guardians of the temple service at Jerusalem.'
Neither was Natal faced with the Cape problem of a large half-caste population.
He abrogated caste distinctions, and taught in opposition to ancient writings that every man had the eternal right of searching for divine knowledge and worshipping his Creator.
The success of his work had the effect (1) of altering the policy of the government of India in matters of education, (2) of securing the recognition of education as a missionary agency by Christian churches at home, and (3) of securing entrance for Christian ideas into the minds of high-caste Hindus.
No such thing as caste exists, and low birth is no insuperable bar to the attainment of the highest dignities.
Below him ranked the newly converted Moslem aristocracy, who adopted the dress, titles and etiquette of the Turkish court, without relinquishing their language or many of their old customs. They dwelt in fortified towns or castles, where the vali was only admitted on sufferance for a few days; and, at the outset, they formed a separate military caste, headed by 48 kapetans - landholders exercising unfettered authority over their retainers and Christian serfs, but bound, in return, to provide a company of mounted troops for the service of their sovereign.
They are distinguished from the Hindus by no outward sign except a slight laxity in the matter of caste observances.
" In historical times the priesthood is rigidly confined to members of the Brahman caste, who are regarded as the representatives of God on earth.
In 1075 he caused the investiture of ecclesiastica dignitaries by secular potentates of any degree to be condemned These two reforms, striking at the most cherished privileges ant most deeply-rooted self-indulgences of the aristocratic caste ii Europe, inflamed the bitterest hostility.
They were a social caste, which strove to keep, and which largely succeeded in keeping, all high offices and political power in its own hands.
Hinduism, which was once the religion of Java, but has been extinct there for four centuries, is still in vogue in the islands of Bali and Lombok, where the cruel custom of widow-burning (suttee) is still practised, and the Hindu system of the four castes, with a fifth or Pariah caste (called Chandala), adhered to.
The men of Rus, or Variags, as they were sometimes called, were simply the hardy Norsemen or Normans who at that time, in various countries of Europe, appeared first as armed marauders and then lived in the invaded territory as a dominant military caste until they were gradually absorbed by the native population.
The schedule adopted contains in addition to the standard subjects of sex, age, civil condition, birthplace, occupation and infirmities, columns for mother-tongue, religion and sect, and caste and sub-caste.
Many of the janissaries had married and settled on the land, forming a strongly conservative and fanatical caste, friendly to the Moslem nobles, who now dreaded the curtailment of their own privileges.
8-1r, 36-40), while another shows the supremacy of the Levites as a caste either over the rest of the people (?
The name does not indicate a social caste, or a religious sect; it is not even tribal.
(3) This organization established in the Roman world a personal and hereditary fixity of professions and situations which was not very far removed from the caste system of the East.
Amar Das preached the doctrine abrogation of caste distinctions, and his precepts were implicitly followed by his successors.
They had their own kings, lived as a close caste, and even imitated the Hindus in caste regulations of food and avoidance of pollution.
The caste privileges of the estates (Stdnde) were increased by Augustus, a fact which tended to alienate them more from the people, and so to decrease their power.
But in this aristocratic caste the women are scrupulously clothed.
It is also extensively practised in India, especially by one caste of Brahmins, the Joshi.
(14) Theoretically there is no distinction of caste among the Brahmas.
By rigid precedence the Brahmans occupy the first rank; they are numerous and influential, and with them may be classed the peculiar and important caste of Bhats, the keepers of secular tradition and of the genealogies.
The Heralds' College, the avvogadori di comun, in order to ensure purity of blood, were ordered to open a register of all marriages and births among members of the newly created caste, and these registers formed the basis of the famous Libro d'oro.
There are Parsee, Banyan, Goanese and Arab traders, and about 300 Europeans, besides half-caste Portuguese.
The members of the lowest class were not in a state of individual subjection: the entire caste to which they belonged was collectively subject.
But after a time Delbriick, suspected of inspiring his charge with a dislike of the Prussian military caste and even of belonging to a political secret society, was dismissed, his place being taken by the pastor and historian Friedrich Ancillon, while a military governor was also appointed.
For long the Brahmas did not attempt any social reforms. But about 1865 the younger section, headed by Babu Keshub Chunder Sen, who joined the Samaj in 1857, tried to carry their religious theories into practice by demanding the abandonment of the external signs of caste distinction.
It is expressly directed by the act of 1898 above referred to, that in regard to succession, inheritance, marriage, caste or any religious usage or institution, the law to be administered in Burma is (a) the Buddhist law in cases where the parties are Buddhists, (b) the Mahommedan law in cases where the parties are Mahommedans, (c) the Hindu law in cases where the parties are Hindus, except so far as the same may have been modified by the legislature.
Govind Singh1675-1708the 15th centuries, and during a visit to Benares he renounced some of the social and caste observances of the Hindus, called his disciples the liberated, and freed them from all restrictions in eating and social intercourse.
He said: "Let no one be proud of his caste, for this pride of caste resulteth in many sins.
He, like his predecessors, openly attacked all distinctions of caste, and taught the equality of all men who would join him, and he instituted a ceremony of initiation with baptismal holy water by which all might enter the Sikh fraternity.
While Sayce has said roundly that common sense demands the acceptance of all as the work of the Hittites, who were the dominant caste throughout a loosely-knit empire extending at one time from the Orontes to the Aegean, Messerschmidt has stated with equal dogmatism that the Hittites proper were only one people out of many 1 in N.
His adherents recognized his young half-caste son, a gallant and noble youth generally known as Almagro the Lad, as his successor.
Cavour, on the other hand, while anxious to deal irously with the Garibaldians, recognized the impossibility of such urse, which would not only have offended the conservative spirit :he Piedmontese military caste, which disliked and despised 101am troops, but would almost certainly have introduced into the y an element of indiscipline and disorder.
In general terms the Mahrattas, in the wider sense, may be described under two main heads: first the Brahmans, and secondly the low-caste men.
In Prussia, with its traditional loyalty and its old-world caste divisions, he believed that such a conception could be realized, and he took up an attitude half-way between those who would have rejected the proposal for a central diet altogether as a dangerous "thin end of the wedge," and those who would have approximated it more to the modern conception of a parliament.
Sikhism was founded by Nanak, a Khatri by caste, who was born at Talwandi near Lahore in A.D.
The chief direct result in the life of the Egyptian people was the virtual destruction of the governing caste of the Mamelukes, the Turks finding it easy to rid themselves of their surviving chiefs and to re-establish the authority of the Sultan.
The conquered peoples fell into an inferior caste, made to work for, and to pay for the subsistence of, their conquerors, as under the Arab domination; the principal taxes exacted from them were the kharaj, a tax of indeterminate amount upon realty, based on the value of lands owned by unbelievers - (in contradistinction to the tithe [ashar] which was a tax of fixed amount upon lands owned by believers) - and levied in payment of the privilege of gaining means of existence in a Mussulman country, and the jiziye, a compulsory payment, or poll-tax, to which believers were not subjected, in lieu of military service.
Three hundred of the highest-caste Brahmins live with their families within the temple enclosure.
The position of this class, which has remained till the present day, is connected with the institution of caste, a division of the population into groups founded partly on racial distinctions.
As they were not a hereditary caste and enjoyed exemption from service in the field as well as from payment of taxes, admission to the order was eagerly sought after by the youth of Gaul.