The town has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college, flour-mills, manufactories of earthenware, biscuits, furniture, casks, and glass and brick works; the port has trade in grain, timber, hemp, flax, &c.
On the first day, called Pithoigia (opening of the casks), libations were offered from the newly opened casks to the god of wine, all the household, including servants and slaves, joining in the festivities.
The industries include the spinning of jute, flax, hemp and cotton, iron-founding, brewing, and the manufacture of machinery, fishing-nets, sailcloth, sacks, casks, and soap. There are also saw-and flour-mills, petroleum refineries and oil-works.
The ozone so prepared has numerous uses, as, for example, in bleaching oils, waxes, fabrics, &c., sterilizing drinking-water, maturing wines, cleansing foul beer-casks, oxidizing oil, and in the manufacture of vanillin.
-- "Gauges," as understood at one time, included only those used in the measurement of barrels, casks, &c., and hence the term "gauger."
It is also a centre for hat-making, and produces cloth-fabrics, lace, umbrellas, casks, chairs, wooden shoes, candles and pastries.
Other manufactures are railway cars, casks, cooperage, saw and planing mill products, furniture, wooden ware, windmills, gas-engines, and mattresses and wire beds.
The finished product is packed into wooden casks lined with brown paper.
The work of packing is a most disagreeable and unhealthy operation which is best relieved by erecting the chambers at a higher level and placing the casks underneath, communication being made by means of traps in the chamber-bottom, so that the packers can do their work FIG.
The bleaching-powder casks must be kept in a dry place, as cool as possible, and never exposed to the direct rays of the sun, in order to prevent a decomposition which now and then has even led to explosions.
Large quantities of potassium chlorate exposed to strong heat in contact with the wood of casks or the timber of a roof have produced violent explosions.
The dried or " finished " soda-ash is ground to a pretty fine powder and is packed into wooden casks or " tierces," holding from io to about 20 cwt.
It carries on considerable trade in live-stock and cereals and in the vegetables of its market-gardens, and manufactures of casks, corks, white metal, oil, vinegar and machinery for the wine-trade are included among the industries; it is chiefly important for its.
The wood of the aspen is very light and soft, though tough; it is employed by coopers, chiefly for pails and herring-casks; it is also made into butchers' trays, pack-saddles, and various articles for which its lightness recommends it; sabots are also made of it in France, and in medieval days it was valued for arrows, especially for those used in target practice; the bark is used for tanning in northern countries; cattle and deer browse greedily on the young shoots and abundant suckers.
Filbert nuts required for keeping must be gathered only when quite ripe; they may then be preserved in dry sand, or, after drying, by packing with a sprinkling of salt in sound casks or new FIG.
After the main fermentation is finished, the young wine is transferred to casks or vats.
The general method followed is to fill the casks to the bung-hole and to keep them full by an occasional addition of wine.
The wine is racked into clean casks, and this operation is repeated at intervals of some months, in all three to four times.
The greatest care is necessary to ensure the cleanliness and asepticity of the casks in which wine is stored or into which it is racked.
They are subjected to frequent racking, the casks into which they are racked being more highly sulphured than is the case with red wines.
The second racking takes place in March or April, and the wine is now placed in casks and sent to Oporto, where it is stored in large over-ground buildings termed lodges.
The process of vinification is peculiar in that fermentation takes place in relatively small casks, the result being that there are frequently marked differences in the produce of the same growth and vintage.
This is produced by placing the finest grapes in casks and drawing off the juice which exudes naturally as a result of the weight of the material.
The sap-wood is more perishable,, but it is useful for fences, casks and a variety of other purposes;.
The town has flour-mills, iron-`works, tanneries, distilleries and nursery-gardens, and it has manufactures of casks and of vinegar.
Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is, "an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."