CARTAGENA, or CARTHAGENA, a seaport of south-eastern Spain, in the province of Murcia; in 37° 36' N.
Cartagena is fortified, and possesses an arsenal and naval dockyards.
South, protects Cartagena from the violence of wind and waves.
The industrial and commercial progress of Cartagena was much hindered, during the first half of the 19th century, by the prevalence of epidemic diseases, the abandonment of the arsenal, and rivalry with the neighbouring port of Alicante.
Its sanitary condition, though still defective, was improved by the drainage of the adjacent Almajar Marsh; and after 1870, when the population had dwindled to about 26,000, Cartagena advanced rapidly in size and wealth.
From Cartagena the principal exports are metallic ores, esparto grass, wine, cereals and fruit.
In 1904, exclusive of coasters and small craft trading with north-west Africa, 562 ships of 604,208 tons entered the port of Cartagena, 259 being British and 150 Spanish; while 90 vessels were accommodated at Porman.
Cartagena was founded about the year 243 B.C. by the Carthaginian Hasdrubal, and was called Carthago Nova or New Carthage, to distinguish it from the African city of Carthage.
Cartagena was a bishopric from about 400 to 1289, when the see was removed to Murcia.
In consequence of the insurrection in Spain, Cartagena was in 1844 again the scene of warfare.
On the 23rd of August 1873 it was bombarded by the Spanish fleet under Admiral Lobos; on the 11th of October a battle took place off the town, between the ships of the government and the rebels, and on the 12th of January 1874 Cartagena was occupied by the government troops.
See Biblioteca historica de Cartagena, by G.
Vicent y Portillo (Madrid, 1889, &c.); Fechos y fechas de Cartagena, by I.
Martinez Rito (Cartagena, 1894); and Serie de los obispos de Cartagena, by P. Diaz Casson (Madrid, 1895).
In 1508 Alonso de Ojeda obtained the government of the coast of South America from Cabo de la Vela to the Gulf of Darien; Ojeda landed at Cartagena in 1510, and sustained a defeat from the natives, in which his lieutenant, Juan de la Cosa, was killed.
In the 16th century the city was the strongest Spanish fortress in the New World, excepting Cartagena, and gold and silver were brought hither by ship from Peru and were carried across the Isthmus to Chagres, but as Spain's fleets even in the Pacific were more and more often attacked in the 17th century, Panama became less important, though it was still the chief Spanish port on the Pacific. In 1671 the city was destroyed by Henry Morgan, the buccaneer; it was rebuilt in 1673 by Alfonzo Mercado de Villacorta about five miles west of the old site and nearer the roadstead.
Among his books may be mentioned Mogreb-elAcksa: a Journey in Morocco (1898); The Ipane (1899); A Vanished Arcadia (1901); Faith (1909); Hope (1910); Charity (1912); A Life of Bernal Diaz del Castillo (1915); A Brazilian Mystic (1920); Cartagena and the Books of the Sinu (1920).
ALPHONSUS A SANCTA MARIA, or ALPHONSO DE CARTAGENA (1396-1456), Spanish historian, was born at Carthagena, and succeeded his father, Paulus, as bishop of Burgos.
He did not, however, remain long in retirement, but in September 1812, hearing of important movements in New Granada, repaired to Cartagena, where he received a commission to operate against the Spanish troops on the Magdalena river.
From Cumana Bolivar repaired to Cartagena, and thence to Tunja, where the revolutionary congress of New Granada was sitting.
The convoys or flotas sailed in October first to Cartagena in South America, and from thence to Nombre de Dios or, in later times, Porto Bello.
CARTAGENA, Or CARTHAGENA, a city, seaport, and the capital of the department of Bolivar, Colombia, South America, on the Caribbean coast, in Io 2 5' 48" N., 75° 34' W.
The population of Cartagena 'is largely composed of blacks and mixed races, which form the predominant type on the lowland plains of northern Colombia.
The well-to-do whites of Cartagena usually have country houses on the Turbaco hills, where the temperature is much lower than on the coast.
Cartagena is an episcopal see, and its cathedral dates from colonial times.
The commercial importance of Cartagena declined greatly during the period of civil disorders which followed the war for independence, but in later years has revived.
Long, was built between Cartagena and Calamar.
Cartagena was founded in 1533 by Pedro de Heredia.
Cartagena, Spain >>
He also received the bishopric of Cartagena in Murcia in 1521, and that of Albano in 1535.
The capital, Cartagena on the Caribbean coast, was once the principal commercial entrepot of Colombia.
Lawrence had served with Fairfax at Cartagena, and had made the acquaintance of Admiral Edward Vernon, from whom Mount Vernon was named.
In 1740 he was commissioned majorgeneral to conduct the expedition against Cartagena, but died while attending to the embarcation, at Annapolis, Maryland, on the 7th of June 1740.
Of Cartagena, Spain.
There is regular communication with Marseilles, Cette, Barcelona, Valencia, Cartagena, Malaga, Gibraltar, and the various ports on the Barbary coast.
Such a statesman was sure to clash with the doctrinaires, like Salmeron, who wanted to imitate French methods; with Pi y Margall, who wanted a federal republic after purely Spanish ideas of decentralization; and above all with the intransigent and gloomy fanatics who became the leaders of the cantonal insurrections at Cadiz, Seville, Valencia, Malaga and Cartagena in 1873.
He selected his generals without respect of politics, sending Moriones to the Basque provinces and Navarre at the head of 20,000 men, Martinez Campos to Catalonia with several thousand, and Lopez Dominguez, the nephew of Marshal Serrano, to begin the land blockade of the last stronghold of the cantonal insurgents, Cartagena, where the crews of Spain's only fleet had joined the revolt.
The colony gave many proofs of its loyalty to the mother country: it furnished three companies of troops for Admiral Vernon's unfortunate expedition against Cartagena in 1741; in King George's War it raised £ 2000 for supplies, furnished troops for the capture of Louisburg and sent over six hundred men to Albany; and in the French and Indian (or Seven Years') War its militia participated in the capture of both Quebec and Havana.
The largest of these islands is Baru, lying immediately south of the entrance to Cartagena harbour.
The Caribbean coast of Colombia has only four ports engaged in international trade - Barranquilla, Cartagena, Santa Marta and Rio Hacha.
The oldest and best port on the coast is Cartagena, 65 m.
The Gulf of Morosquillo, a broad shallow indentation of the coast south of Cartagena, receives the waters of the Rio Sinu, at the mouth of which is the small port of Cispata.
In length; (2) the Cartagena and Calamar, 65 m.; (3) the La Dorada & Arancaplumas (around the Honda rapids), 202 m.; (4) the Colombian National, from Girardot to Facatativa, 80 m., of which 482 m.
Tramway lines were in operation in Bogota, Barranquilla and Cartagena in 1907.
There are only five ports, Buenaventura, Barranquilla,Cartagena, Santa Marta and Rio Hacha, which are engaged in foreign commerce, though Tumaco and Villamazar are favourably situated for carrying on a small trade with Ecuador and Venezuela.
From Cartagena, was the first of its kind erected in the republic. It is partially supported by the government, and the concession provides that the production of sugar shall not be less than 2,600,000 lb per annum.
In 1840 the province of Cartagena had seceded, and the new president had hardly taken office before Panama and Veragua also declared themselves independent, under the title of the State of the Isthmus of Panama.
Nunez from motives of ill-health did not openly assume the presidential office, but from his house near Cartagena he practically directed the government of the republic. The Liberals now began to foment a series of revolutionary movements, and these led in 1885 to a civil war extending over the departments of Boyaca, Cundinamarca, Magdalena and Panama.
The rebels were defeated in May in a desperate battle at Cartagena; and continuous fighting went on about Panama, where British marines had to be landed to protect foreign interests.
Alicante was besieged by the French in 1709, and by the Federalists of Cartagena in 1873.