Bela did his utmost to place his kingdom in a state of defence, and appealed betimes to the pope, the duke of Austria and the emperor for assistance; but in February and March 1241 the Tatars burst through the Carpathian passes; in April Bela himself, after a gallant stand, was routed on the banks of the Saj6 and fled to the islands of Dalmatia; and for the next twelve months the kingdom of Hungary was merely a geographical expression.
But by far the greater portion of the Hungarian highlands belongs to the Carpathian mountains, which begin, to the north, on the left bank of the Danube at Deveny near Pressburg (Pozsony), run in a north-easterly and easterly direction, sway round south-eastward and then westward in a vast irregular semicircle, and end near Orsova at the Iron Gates of the Danube, where they meet the Balkan mountains.
The hilly regions of Transylvania and of the northern part of Hungary consist of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic rocks and are closely connected, both in structure and origin, with the Carpathian chain.
Besides the museums mentioned in the article Budapest, several provincial towns contain interesting museums, namely, Pressburg, Temesvhr, Deva, Kolozsvar, Nagyszeben; further, the national museum at Zagram, the national (Szekler) museum at Maros-Vasarhely, and the Carpathian museum at Poprad should be mentioned.
Throughout the whole of the Carpathian system there are numerous mountain lakes, but they cannot compare with the Alpine lakes either in extension or beauty.
It is formed almost entirely of a succession of sandstones and shales of Cretaceous and Tertiary age - the so-called Carpathian Sandstone - and these are thrown into a series of isoclinal folds dipping constantly to the south.
Of all the peculiar features of the Carpathian chain, perhaps the most remarkable is the fringe of volcanic rocks which lies along its inner margin.
The Bogomil propaganda follows the mountain chains of central Europe, starting from the Balkans and continuing along the Carpathian Mountains, the Alps and the Pyrenees, with' ramifications north and south (Germany, England and Spain).
It consists of a marble statue of Austria erected on a pedestal of green Carpathian sandstone.
Pieta, inhabits the Apennines; the Carpathian chamois is very dark-coloured, and the one from the Caucasus is the representative of yet another race.
BACAU, the capital of the department of Bacau, Rumania; situated among the foothills of the Carpathian Mountains, and on the river Bistritza, which enters the river Sereth 5 m.
In the space which is thus enclosed, lies the Tertiary basin of the Hungarian plain; and outside the belt, on the northern side, is a region which, geologically, is composite, but has uniformly resisted the Carpathian folding.
Throughout, the dip is very low and the beds are unaffected by the Carpathian folds, the strike being nearly from north to south.
Of undulating country separate the Dniester from the margin of the Carpathian chain, and in this space the Palaeozoic floor sinks far beneath the surface, so that not even the deep-cut valley of the Pruth exposes any beds of older date than Miocene.
Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London.
Slopes of the central plateau and those of the Carpathian and Lublin mountains, and the Carpathian plateau, that is, the governments of Podolia, Volhynia, Poltava, and Kiev.
Southwest of Rhodes, in that part of the Mediterranean which was called, after it, the Carpathian Sea (Carpathium Mare).
The Carpathian mountains; on the S.
Worth mentioning are also the two Carpathian societies: the Hungarian and the Transylvanian.
Tirgu Ocna is built among the Carpathian Mountains, on bare hills formed of rock salt.
TATRA MOUNTAINS (Hungarian Tarczal) or the High Tatra, the highest group in the central Carpathians, and the central group of the whole Carpathian system.
Gerlachfalvi-Csuucs, 8737 ft.), the highest in the Carpathian system; the Lomnitz (Lomniczi-Csucs, 8642 'ft.); the Eisthal (Jegvolgyi-Csucs, 8630 ft.); the Tatraspitze or Hohe Visoka (8415 ft.); the Kesmark (8226 ft.); the Meeraugenspitze (Tengerszem-Csucs, 8 210 ft.); the Schlagendorf (SzalOki-Csucs, 8050 ft.); and the Krivan (8190 ft.).
CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS 2 (Lat.
The Carpathian system can be divided into two groups: the Carpathians proper, and the mountains of Transylvania.
(c) The central groups or the High Carpathians extend from the confluence of the rivers Arva and Waag to the river Poprad, and include the highest group of the Carpathian system.
Gerlachfalvi-Csucs), with an altitude of 8737 ft., the highest peak in the whole Carpathian Mountains.
The principal groups are: the Neutra or Galgoc Mountains (4400 ft.), between the rivers Waag and Neutra; the Low or Nizna Tatra, which extends to the south of the High Tatra, and has its highest peaks, the Djumbir (6700 ft.) and the Kralova Hola (6400 ft.); this group is continued towards the east up to the confluence of the Gollnitz with the Hernad, by the so-called Carpathian foot-hills, with the highest peak the Zelesznik (2675 ft.).
The Carpathian system is richer in metallic ores than any other mountain system of Europe, and contains large quantities of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, coal, petroleum, salt, zinc, &c., besides a great variety of useful mineral.
A great stimulus to the study of this mountain system was given by the foundation of the Hungarian Carpathian Society in 1873, and a great deal of information has been added to our knowledge since.
In 1880 two new Carpathian societies were formed: a Galician and a Transylvanian.
PIATRA (PEATRA), the capital of the department of Neamtzu Rumania, situated on the left bank of the river Bistritza, where it cuts a way through the Carpathian foothills.
Cloth manufacture is concentrated at Biala, while the weaving of linen and of woollens is pursued as a household industry, the former in the Carpathian region, the latter in eastern Galicia.
M., is bounded by the Black Forest, some of the minor Alpine ranges, the Bohemian Forest and the Carpathian Mountains on the north, and by the Alps and the Balkan range on the south.
Since the close of the Cretaceous period the Bohemian massif has remained above the sea; but the depression which lies immediately outside the Carpathian chain has at times been covered by an arm of the sea and at other times has been occupied by a chain of salt lakes, to which the salt deposits of Wieliczka and numerous brine springs owe their origin.
In the middle of Hungary a line of hills rises above the plain, striking from the Platten See towards the northeast, where it merges into the inner girdle of the Carpathian chain.
Along the inner edge of this crescent run the Carpathian Mountains, also called, towards their western extremity, the Transylvanian Mountains or Transylvanian Alps; and the frontier which marks off Rumania from Hungary is drawn along their crests.
In the Valcea department, besides many other iodine, sulphur and mud baths, there are the state-supported spas of Calimanescii, Caciulata and Govora, situated among some of the finest Carpathian scenery Most famous of all is Sinaia, the summer residence of the Court; while important springs exist at Lake Sarat, near Braila; at Slanic, in the Prahova department, where flooded and abandoned salt-mines are fitted up as baths; at the Tekir Ghiol mere, near Constantza; and at Baltzatesti (Baltate,itii), in the Neamtzu (Neamtu) department, a favourite resort of invalids from many parts of eastern Europe.
Lumber is floated down the rivers of the Carpathian watershed to the Danube, and so exported to Turkey and Bulgaria; casks, shaped planks and petroleum drums go chiefly to Austria and Russia.
It in circa cluded the Carpathian region of Bukovina, literally the beechwood, " where lay Sereth and Suciava (Suczawa), the earliest residences of the voivodes, the maritime district of Budzak (the later Bessarabia), with Kilia, Byelgorod and the left bank of the lower Danube from Galatz to the Sulina mouth.
Of this town it has to force its way across the same granitic offshoot of the Carpathian mountains which interrupts the course of the Dniester and the Bug, and for a distance of about 25 m.
PLOESCI (Ploescii), the capital of the department of Prahova, Rumania; at the southern entrance of a valley among the Carpathian foothills, through which flows the river Prahova; and at the junction of railways to Buzeu, Bucharest and Hermannstadt in Transylvania.
These are known under the general name of Transylvanian Mountains, which are the southeastern continuation of the Carpathian system, and fill the interior of the country with their ramifications.