The artificial cultivation of fish, now chiefly carp, in the numerous ponds that surround the town dates from the 14th century.
The Cyprinidae, or carp, are largely represented in southern Asia, and there grow to a size unknown in Europe; a Barbus in the Tigris has been taken of the weight of 300 Th.
The presence of carp in Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago is probably also to be ascribed to human agency.
Among Indian fishes, the Cyprinidae or carp family and the Siluridae or cat-fishes are best represented.
In the days of medieval abbeys, when the provident Cistercian monks attached great importance to pond culture, they gave the first place to the tench and bream, the carp still being unknown in the greater part of Europe.
Lake Greca, famous for its carp, lies io m.
The most useful economically are several species of sturgeon and of herring, trout,barbel,chubb,bream, ray,sea-dace, carp, anchovy.
The fishery includes salmon in the Oder, trout in the mountain streams, and carp in the small lakes or ponds with which the province is sprinkled.
A close ally of the carp is the Crucian carp, Cyprinus carassius, chiefly distinguished by the absence of barbels.
One of these, remarkable for its very short, thick head and deep body, is the socalled Prussian carp, C. gibelio, often imported into English ponds, whilst the best known is the goldfish, C. auratus, first produced in China.
Fish are caught in great numbers in the rivers and marshes, chiefly barbel and carp, and the latter attain so great a size that one is a sufficient load for an ass.
The carp and salmon tribes are the most abundant; after them rank the pike, the eel, the shad, the roach, the perch and the lamprey.
The sacred beasts in the various temples, tame as far as possible, were of almost every conceivable variety, from the vulture to the swallow or the goose, from the lion to the shrew-mouse, from the hippopotamus to the sheep and the monkey, from the crocodile to the tortoise and the cobra, from the carp to the eel; the scorpion and the scarab beetle were perhaps the strangest in this strange company of deities.
Carp, possess practically no cortex cerebri, and nevertheless execute "volitional" acts involving high co-ordination and suggesting the possession by them of associative memory, shows that for the existence of these phenomena the cortex cerebri is in them not essential.
Large numbers of fish, principally carp, pike and tench are still reared profitably, the pools being periodically dried up and the ground cultivated.
The Fayum also possesses an excellent breed of sheep. Lake Kerun abounds in fish, notably the bulli (Nile carp), of which considerable quantities are sent to Cairo.
The fish are mainly the coarser species, such as carp, buffalo-fish and white perch; of better food fish, the principal varieties are bass (black, striped and rock), crappie, pike, "jack salmon" or walleyed pike, and sun fish.
The common carp (Cyprinus carpio), originally a Chinese fish, has for centuries been acclimatized in Europe, where indeed it is in places a true domestic creature, with definite variations.
The Prussian carp (Carassius vulgaris) is established in New Zealand, and the nearly-allied goldfish, a domestic form (C. auratus) of Chinese origin, has been widely distributed as a pet, and is feral in some places.
Fish are scarce in inner Persia; salmon trout and mud-trout are plentiful in some of the mountain streams. Many underground canals are frequented by carp and roach.
The fish principally caught are sturgeon, giving caviare, sheat fish or silure, salmon, carp, bream and perch.
The Siluridae, or scaleless fishes, and the Cyprinidae, or carp and loach, form the bulk of the mountain fish, :and the genera and species appear to be organized for a mountaintorrent life, being almost all furnished with suckers to enable them to maintain their positions in the rapid streams which they inhabit.
The various breeds of goldfish are familiar examples, but the carp is almost the only food-fish capable of similar domestication.
The pond-culture of carp is an important industry in China and Germany, and has been introduced with some success in the United States, but in England it has long fallen out of use, and is not likely to be revived so long as fresh fish can be obtained and distributed so readily as is now the case.
Among fishes, white fish, lake trout, perch, herring, sun-fish, bass, sturgeon, pickerel, suckers, German carp and fresh-water drum abound in the lakes.
BITTERLING (Rhodeus amarus), a little carp-like fish of central Europe, belonging to the Cyprinid family.
Among European freshwater fishing-grounds, the Danube is only surpassed by the Volga; the most valuable fish being sturgeon and sterlet, mostly netted in the St George mouth; carp, often weighing 50 lb; pike, perch, tench and eels.
The name was taken from the Junimea, a literary society formed in Jassy in 1874 by P. Carp, T.
The most prominent statesman in the new Conservative-Junimist ad- - ministration was P. Carp, who in the spring of 1889 succeeded in passing a bill which authorized the distribution of state lands among the peasantry.
The Conservative programme was naturally unpopular; Carp and the Junimists were unwilling to co-operate with the government, and, on the 26th of February 1901, D.
The chief are the Sardab-rud, Chalus, Herhaz (Lar in its upper course), Babul, Tejen and Nika, and all are well stocked with trout, salmon (azad-mahi), perch (safid-mahi), carp (kupur), bream (subulu), sturgeon (sag-mahi) and other fish, which with rice form the staple food of the inhabitants; the sturgeon supplies the caviare for the Russian market.
There are a few speckled trout in the mountain streams, but the commoner fish are bass, perch, catfish, crappies, pike, drum buffalo, carp, suckers and eels.
Huso); sheat-fish or silure, simm, summ (Silurus glanis); salmon, azad mahi (Salmo solar); trout, maseh (Salmo trutta); carp, kupur (Cyprinus ballerus and C. car pio); bream, subulu (Abramis brama); pike-perch, mahi safid(Perca lucsoperca or Lucioperca sandra).
CARP, the typical fish of a large family (Cyprinidae) of Ostariophysi, as they have been called by M.
For descriptions of other Cyprinids than the carp, see Goldfish, Barbel, Gudgeon, Rudd, Roach, Chub, Dace, Minnow, Tench, Bream, Bleak, Bitterling, Mahseer.
The carp itself, Cyprinus carpio, has a very wide distribution, having spread, through the agency of man, over nearly the whole of Europe and a part of North America, where it lives in lakes, ponds, canals, and slow-running rivers with plenty of The Common Carp.
The carp appears to be a native of temperate Asia and perhaps also of south-eastern Europe, and to have been introduced into other parts in the 12th and 13th century; it was first mentioned in England in 1496.
The acclimatization of the carp in America has been a great success, especially in the northern waters, where, the growth continuing throughout the entire year, the fish soon attains a remarkable size.
In the British Isles the 1 The name of the fishes of the genus Cyprinus is derived from the island of Cyprus, the ancient sanctuary of Venus; this name is supposed to have arisen from observations of the fecundity and vivacity of carp during the spawning period.
Carp seldom reaches a length of 21 ft., and a weight of 201h, whilst examples of that size are quite frequent on the continent, and others measuring 41 ft.
But it varies much in form and scaling, and some most aberrant varieties have been fixed by artificial selection, the principal being the king-carp or mirror-carp, in which the scales are enlarged and reduced in number, forming more or less regular longitudinal series on the sides, and the leather-carp, in which the scales have all but disappeared, the fish being covered with a thick, leathery skin.
Although partly feeding on worms and other small forms of animal life, the carp is principally a vegetarian, and the great development of its pharyngeal apparatus renders it particularly adapted to a graminivorous regime.