They fall into three main groups, the Western, Central and Eastern Carolines, the central being the most numerous, while the western include the Pelew group. The total land area is about 380 sq.
In 1686 Admiral Francesco Lazeano, who made further explorations, renamed them the Carolines in honour of Charles II.
Megapodes are found in the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides, Samoa, Tonga, the Carolines and the Marianas.
In Micronesia, since the discoveries of the early Spanish navigators, the Carolines, Mariana and Pelew Islands had been recognized as Spanish territory until 1885, when Germany began to establish herself in the first-named group. Spain had never occupied this group, but protested against the German action, and Pope Leo XIII.
As arbitrator awarded the Carolines to her.
The administrative area includes the German Solomon Islands and the Caroline, Pelew and Mariana Islands, which are divided into three administrative groups - the eastern Carolines, western Carolines and Marianas.
In 1888 he was sent out as captain-general to the Philippines, where he dealt very sternly with the native rebels of the Carolines, of Mindanao and other provinces.
In the Carolines and Marshalls it has now largely passed to German missionaries, the Americans having enough to do in the Philippines, where there are already over 27,000 Protestants.
It thus comprises all the insular groups which extend almost continuously from the south-eastern extremity of Asia to more than half-way across the Pacific. Its chief divisions are Malaysia with the Philippines; Australia with Tasmania and New Zealand; Melanesia, that is, New Guinea, New Britain, New Ireland, Admiralty, the Solomons, New Hebrides, Santa Cruz, Fiji, Loyalties and New Caledonia; Micronesia, that is, the Ladrones, Pelew and Carolines, with the Marshal] and Gilbert groups; lastly, Polynesia, that is, Samoa, Tonga, Cook, Tahiti, the Marquesas, Ellice, Hawaii and all intervening clusters.
The islands were bought by Germany from Spain in 1899, and are administered together with the western Carolines, Yap being the administrative centre.
Among the Carolines and the Marshalls darker and more savage communities are found, suggesting a Melanesian element, which is further traceable in the Ebon (Marshall) and other languages.
The general Micronesian type is a well-proportioned rather slightly built figure, with small and regular features; head high and well proportioned, but forehead rather retreating and narrow at the temples; cheek bones and chin slightly prominent; straight black hair, lanker than that of the Polynesians, colour somewhat darker than the Polynesians, the Marshalls being darker and more vigorous than the Carolines, while the Gilbert type, though smaller than the latter, is still darker and coarser.
A two-edged weapon, of which the blade is of sharks' teeth, and a defensive armour of braided sennit, are also peculiar to the islands; a large adze, made of the shell of the Tridacna gigas (the largest bivalve known), was formerly used in the Carolines, probably by the old builder race.
The houses in the Gilberts and Marshalls (much less elaborate than in the Carolines) consist merely of a thatched roof resting on posts or on blocks of coral about 3 ft.