Exports in 1904 were valued at £419,642, the principal items being agricultural products (oranges, lemons, carobs, almonds, grapes, valonia, &c.), value £153,858, olives and products of olives-(oil, soap, &c.), £134,788, and wines and liquors, £48,544.
Isobutyric acid is found in the free state in carobs (Ceratonia siliqua) and in the root of Arnica dulcis, and as an ethyl ester in croton oil.
Barley and wheat, carobs and raisins may be specially indicated among the agricultural exports.
All tithes have been abolished, except those on cereals, carobs, silk cocoons, and, in the form of to% ad valorem export duties, those on cotton, linseed, aniseed and raisins (all other export duties and a fishing tax have been abolished); (4) sheep, goat, and pig tax; (5) an excise on wine, spirits and tobacco; (6) import duties; (7) stamps, court fees, royalties, licenses, &c.; (8) salt monopoly.
Nespras); Condeixa is famous for oranges, Amarante for peaches, Elvas for plums, the southern provinces for carobs and figs.
Oranges and lemons, excluded from the plateau by the severity of the Winter cold, are grown in great quantities on the plains of Andalusia and all round the Mediterranean coast; the peel of the bigarade or bitter orange is exported to Holland for the manufacture of curacao; and figs, almonds, pomegranates, carobs and other southern fruits are also grown abundantly in all the warmer parts, the first two even in central Spain and the more sheltered parts of the northern maritime provinces.