It is explained by Cicero as being due to his theory that the scepticism of Carneades was merely a means of attacking the Stoics on their own ground.
Metrodorus held that Carneades was in reality a loyal follower of Plato.
See also Carneades and Arcesilaus.
He went to the schools of philosophy, and heard lectures on Plato, Diogenes, Clitomachus and Carneades; the conjunction of names show how philosophy had become a dead tradition.
Book i., on the other hand, in which the philosopher Carneades, who died in 128, is spoken of as dead, must have been written after the death of Scipio.
CARNEADES (214-129 B.C.), Greek philosopher, founder of the Third or New Academy, was born at Cyrene.
His powerful reasoning excited among the Roman youth an enthusiasm for philosophical speculations, and the elder Cato insisted on Carneades and his companions being dismissed from the city.
Carneades, practically a 5th-century sophist, is the most important of the ancient sceptics.
Carneades also assailed Stoic theology and physics.
Carneades further attacked the very idea of God.
The general line of argument followed by Carneades anticipates much in modern thought.
According to Carneades, an impression may be probable in itself; probable and uncontradicted (direpivlraaTos, lit.
Carneades left no written works; his opinions seem to have been systematized by Clitomachus.
The scepticism of the New Academy (more strictly of the Middle Academy, under Arcesilaus and Carneades) differed very little from that of the Pyrrhonists.
The whole position was stated with more urbanity and culture, and was supported, by Carneades in particular, by argumentation at once more copious and more acute.
45) it appears that he was sent with Carneades and Diogenes to Rome in 156-155 B.C. to protest against the fine of 500 talents imposed on Athens in punishment for the sack of Oropus.
The visit of the three great philosophers, Diogenes the " Babylonian," Critolaus and Carneades in 155, was an epoch-making event in the history of Hellenism at Rome.
The Stoic teaching is derived from Cleanthes, Chrysippus and Zeno, and is criticized from the writings of Carneades and Clitomachus.
From the time of Pyrrho overlapping Aristotle himself, who seems to have been well content to use the feints of more than one school among his predecessors, while showing that none of them could claim to get past his guard, down through a period in which the decadent academy under Carneades, otherwise dogmatic in its negations, supplied new thrusts and parries, to Aenesidemus in the late Ciceronian age, and again to Sextus Empiricus, there seems to have been something of plasticity and continuous progress.
However, the younger Stoics endeavoured to meet the assaults of their persistent critic Carneades by suggesting various modes of testing a single presentation, to see whether it were consistent with others, especially such as occurred in groups, &c.; indeed, some went so far as to add to the definition " coming from a real object and exactly corresponding with it " the clause " provided it encounter no obstacle."
And there is much that is anticipatory of modern libertarian views in the psychological argument by which Carneades attempted at once to avoid the Epicurean identification of will with chance, and to prove the rationality of choice, undetermined by any external or antecedent necessity, as an explanation of human actions Xxviii.
Varro also studied at Athens, especially under the philosopher Antiochus of Ascalon, whose aim it was to lead back the Academic school from the scepticism of Arcesilaus and Carneades to the tenets of the early Platonists, as he understood them.
Chrysippus's im mediate successors were Zeno of Tarsus, Diogenes of Seleucia (often called the Babylonian) and Antipater of Tarsus, men of no originality, though not without ability; the two lastnamed, however, had all their energies taxed to sustain the conflict with Carneades (q.v.).
Carneades had emphasized one striking apparent inconsistency: it had been laid down that to choose what is natural is man's highest good, and yet the things chosen, the " first objects according to nature," had no place amongst goods.
And similar criticism is actually passed by Posidonius: " This is not the end, but only its necessary concomitant; such a mode of expression may be useful for the refutation of objections put forward by the Sophists " (Carneades and the New Academy ?), " but it contains nothing of morality or well-being " (Galen, De Plac. et Plat.
All the assaults of the sceptical Academy had failed, and within fifty years of the death of Carneades his degenerate successors, unable to hold their ground on the question of the criterion, had capitulated to the enemy.