She was educated with great strictness in the convent of the Carmelites in the Rue St Jacques at Paris.
As her health failed she hardly ever left the convent of the Carmelites in which she had been educated.
In England the chief orders of friars were distinguished by the colour of their habit: thus the Franciscans or Minors were the Grey Friars; the Dominicans or Preachers were the Black Friars (from their black mantle over a white habit), and the Carmelites were the White Friars (from their white mantle over a brown habit): these, together with the Austin Friars or Hermits, formed the four great mendicant orders - Chaucer's "alle the ordres foure."
The Carmelites maintain a mission in Bagdad, as does also the (English) Church Missionary Society.
De Berulle et les Carmelites; Le Pre de Berulle et l'oratoire de Jesus; Le Cardinal de Berulle et Richelieu (3 vols., 1872-1876), by the Abbe M.
1468), provincial of the English Carmelites, he introduced several changes into the rules of that order.
The Friars of the Blessed Virgin of Mount Carmel or Carmelites or Whitefriars came to London in 1241, and made their home on land between Fleet Street and the Thames given by Edward I.
There was formerly an archiepiscopal palace in the town, built by Archbishop Hampton about 1620; and the Dominicans, the Franciscans, the Augustinians, the Carmelites and the knights of St John have monastic establishments.
An article on monastic arrangements would be incomplete without some account of the convents of the Mendicant or Preaching Friars, including the Black Friars or Domini cans, the Grey or Franciscans, the White or Carmelites, Y Friars.
Their nature and work and the needs that called them into being are explained in the article Mendicant Movement, and in the separate articles on ST Francis Of Assisi and Franciscans (1210), St Dominic and Dominicans (1215), Carmelites (1245), Augustinian Hermits (r256) - these were the four great orders of Mendicant friars - to them were added, in 1487, the Servites founded in 1233.
During the period under review, from the Reformation to the French Revolution, the old orders went on alongside of the new, and many notable revivals and congregations arose among them: the most noteworthy were the Capuchins among the Franciscans (1528); the Discalced Carmelites of St Teresa and St John of the Cross (1562); the Trappists (q.v.) among the Cistercians (1663); and, most famous of all, the Maurists among the Benedictines of France (1621).
It is claimed for this foundation (but not with certainty) that it was the first house of Carmelites established in England, and the first general chapter of the order was held here in 1245.
Borromeo was made prothonotary, entrusted with both the public and the privy seal of the ecclesiastical state, and created cardinal with the administration of Romagna and the March of Ancona, and the supervision of the Franciscans, the Carmelites and the knights of Malta.
The Carthusians were expelled in 1782 by the emperor Joseph II., and after being held by the Cistercians in 1784 and the Carmelites in 1789 the monastery was closed in 1810.
With this object she founded her order, of " Discalced " or barefooted Carmelites; it presently became the refuge of Louise de la Valliere and many another penitent *of rank.
Created cardinal-priest in 1244, he played an important part in the council of Lyons in 1245, contributed to the institution of the Feast of Holy Sacrament, the reform of the Carmelites (1247), and the condemnations of the Introductorius in evangelium aeternum of Gherardino del Borgo San Donnino (1255), and of William of St Amour's De periculis novissimorum temporum.